Note: These guidelines were prepared as I went over the project reports submitted and were based on the common errors and observed in the process of reading and marking. As such, there may be other points that may have been
Language and Mechanics
• Provide a list of tables and list of appendices. Tables are different from figures.
• Use the correct format for in-text citation of secondary sources. Follow the APA Style Format
• Identify quoted lines of citations with page numbers, and include page numbers of
• Quoted materials that exceed four lines should be indented and in block form
• All numbers (except one to ten) should be written as Arabic numbers, except for
those used as standard form by groups, organizations, agencies i.e. Grade 1, Grade
2, Grade 10 etc.
• Use Arabic numbers for the Chapter titles, e.g. Chapter 1, Chapter 2, etc
• Observe correct English grammar (verb tense and form, S-V agreement,
• Make sure that all sentences express a complete thought.
• Observe coherence and unity in sentences within a paragraph, and in paragraphs
within a section/heading/topic. Avoid the “cut-and-paste” method.
• Paraphrase ideas from sources to avoid plagiarism or using full quotations in
practically all the paragraphs within the report. Review the difference between a
paraphrase and a précis and how to write each one.
• Use the correct word according to context; synonyms may have the same meaning
but cannot be used in similar contexts.
• Observe consistency in font type for sub-headings (underscoring, bold face)
• Highlight revisions done as self-checking mechanism; it also facilitates marking,
rereading for the FIC.
• Explain the interest generated by your topic/project
• This chapter should briefly but substantially discuss the following:
✓ the background (why your interest on the topic/project?; what is its
relevance to your context? to your field?);
✓ statement of the problem (what is the problem?)
✓ significance of the research project (in what way/s will it fill the
gap in the existing studies in your field? who will benefit from
your research project? in what way/s?)
✓ the questions your research project would answer; (not more than
five to prevent your data from being unwieldy)
✓ the specific objectives of your research project;
✓ scope and delimitations
• Give a brief introduction (what is the chapter about?)
• Provide a sub-head to help your readers maintain focus and for your
discussion (and the whole chapter) to be unified and cohesive. In other
words, the discussion will flow smoothly
• Avoid using Wikipedia, encyclopedia, dictionaries as sources of
information. For references use sources from acknowledged authorities on
the subject/topic. These authorities have a long-track record on research
on the topic, and have been widely cited by other researchers.
• For studies/researches cited, include the objectives, locale, sample,
methodology and results. Explain how each one is related to your project.
• For sharing insights/ideas (interpretations) etc., use present tense in the
RRL. The idea remains true even if it was said years ago. This follows the
same principle in literature discussion, where authors are referred to in the
present tense even if they have already died or written a piece long ago.
Use the past tense for relating conducted data gathering activities.
• Download a plagiarism checker to help you review your work for
plagiarism. Make the necessary changes immediately.
• Paraphrase ideas given to avoid direct quotations that may “pepper” the
chapter and/or enumerating a list. Choose the items most relevant to your
study and explain the relationship.
• End the chapter with a one-paragraph summary
• The whole chapter should not be less than 45 pages.
Organize according to the research questions which will be the sub-sections
• Use graphic organizers as support and label each one accordingly
• As the chapter title suggests, data must be presented and analyzed. In the
analysis, give possible reasons for the results (per question/per category); cite
sources from Chapter 2 to support or refute the results)
• Organize the data (per question) by looking at extremes (highest and lowest
• End each sub-section with a summary.
• End the chapter with a one-paragraph summary
• Begin the chapter with a brief overview of the results of the project.
• Make sure that the conclusion answers the question: what are the implications
of the results? What did you see/realize re the sample (their socio-economic
background, demographic profile)? the research process? the instruments
used? impact of the project on specific stakeholders? etc. Note: your answer
will allow a smooth flow towards the recommendations
• Be certain that the recommendations use the appropriate structure and are
parallel to the list made in the significance of study in Chapter 1
In case you would like to check on other related articles.please be honored to read this one.
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