RUNNING HEAD The running head is an abbreviated title on the top left
of the title page. It should be less
than 50 characters.
AUTHOR INFORMATION The coversheet should state your name and institutional affiliation. Do not underline or use bold or italics.
Running head: PSYCHOLOGY OF CODES 1
The Psychology of Western Military Codes
John Q. Cipher
Utah Valley State College
A page header the title flush left and the page number flush right. Headers should appear at the top part of every page.
A title should clearly state the
main topic in 10 to 12 words. Abbreviations are not appropriate. The title should be centered.
STANDARD FORMAT Double-spaced with 12-point Times New Roman font on all pages of the paper
Margins should be 1-inch all around and on all pages of the paper.
PSYCHOLOGY OF CODES 2
ABSTRACT The abstract sums up your paper’s purpose and content in
120 words or less. It includes important information such as the thesis and main ideas. Abbreviations and unique terms should also be defined. It should be in your own words and as brief as possible. You may also want to list keywords from your paper in your abstract. To do this, center the text and type Keywords: (italicized) and then list your keywords. Listing your keywords will help researchers find your work in databases.
Codes have been used for thousands of years. While “codes” is a general term that is acceptable to describe all kinds of hidden meanings, really there are two important concepts to know. A cipher mixes the letters themselves, while a code mixes up the message on a word level. Although codes were originally developed for military purposes, civilians have borrowed encoding techniques for a wide variety of purposes including love letters and computer languages.
Keywords: codes, military, civilians.
The word “Abstract” should be centered, without underlining, italics, bold, or punctuation.
Style Guides APA Format
FIRST PAGE OF TEXT
BLOCK QUOTATIONS Quotations that are 40 words or longer need to be set apart in a block. They should be double-spaced and indented 1/2” from the left margin. Quotation marks are not used with block quotations, and the final punctuation is placed before the in-text citation.
PSYCHOLOGY OF CODES 3
The Psychology of Western Military Codes
Throughout world history, military codes have been used by nearly all civilizations. This paper will explore some of the psychology behind codes used by the west’s militaries and how they aided in warfare.
The ability to decipher the code of the enemy enabled the allies
to get the upper hand in WWII. American historian Thomas Powers
(2001) wrote the following:
The American ability to read Japanese cables, code- named Magic, was one of the small advantages that helped the Allies win time and then the war. Another was the British ability to read the German military communications enciphered with the Enigma machine, code-named Ultra. (p. 2)
If it had not been for this secret coding, perhaps the outcome of the
second World War would have been dramatically different. Yet it
The title should be centered
and double-spaced at the top of the page. It should not be italicized, underlined, or bolded.
PSYCHOLOGY OF CODES 6
Since the information unveiled was so critical, the cryptoanalysts
The basic format for an in-text
citation is (Last name of
Headings help you organize the
text for readers. There are five
levels of headings:
literally saved the day.
author, year of publication,
page number of quote). When paraphrasing or summarizing an idea, you are encouraged to
Level 1: Centered, Boldface, Initial-Capped
Level 2: Left-aligned, Boldface, Initial-Capped
Level 3: Indented, boldface, sentence case
Level 4: Indented, boldface, sentence case with a period.
Level 5: Indented, italicized, sentence case with a period.
* This paper uses two headings, so levels 1 and 2 are used.
In Victorian England, strict parents made it hard for lovers to
communicate with each other. “Lovers would have to invent their own ciphers, which they used to publish notes in newspapers” (Wilson, 1987, p. 115).
Charles Babbage’s Contribution
Charles Babbage loved to read the paper and try to solve the codes. Once, he saw a message from a student inviting his girlfriend to elope. Babbage wrote in their code and advised them not to act so rashly. The girl soon wrote and asked her boyfriend not to write again because their code had been discovered (cited in Frank & Frank, 2001).
Considering Babbage’s contribution to the development of the
include the page number but do not have to. For help with citing specific sources, consult http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/02/
CITING SECONDARY SOURCES To cite information that your source has taken from a different source, put the original author of the information in the text and write “as cited in” in your in-text citation followed by the author, date of the work, and page number where the material was found.
Style Guides APA Format
PSYCHOLOGY OF CODES 13
REFERENCES PAGE TITLE The title “References” should be centered but not underlined, italicized, boldfaced, or punctuated.
HANGING INDENT Use a hanging indent for the entries longer than one line.
Indent 1/2’’ from the set margins, after the first line of each entry.
Asay, R. (1978). How the Romans made war. Journal of Military
History, 23, 345-357.
Frank, S. & Frank, T. (2001). The man who invented the military.
New York: Nerd Press.
Powers, T., & Gregory, A. (1954). The psychological executioners.
London: Oxford UP.
Wilson, F. (1987, May 5). Newspaper classifieds contain secret codes. Daily News, pp. F1, F9.
Zagar, R. (1998). Leaving Cambridge. In T. Roger (Ed.), Rommel:
The Man (pp. 123-134). New York: Harcourt and Brace.
List only the works you have
used, not everything you read. For help with citing different sources, consult http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/02/
Arrange entries in alphabetical
order by author’s last name. Use the author’s initials for the first and middle names.
GUIDELINES FOR THE REFERENCES PAGE
In addition to citing sources within the text, APA requires a References page. The following guidelines will help you to correctly format some of the most commonly used sources. For further information, consult http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/02/ Remember the following as you cite sources for APA:
_ Article titles should not be italicized or put in quotation marks.
_ When referring to books, chapters, articles, or Web pages, capitalize only the first letter of the first
word of a title and subtitle, the first word after a colon or a dash in the title, and proper nouns. Do
not capitalize the first letter of the second word in a hyphenated compound word.
BOOK BY A SINGLE AUTHOR
Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year). Book title. Location: Publisher.
Wilson, F. R. (1998). The Hand: How Its Use Shapes the Brain, Language, and Human Culture. New York: Pantheon.
BOOK BY TWO OR MORE AUTHORS
Last name, First initial. Middle initial., Last name, First initial. Middle initial., & Last name, First initial.
Middle initial. (Year). Book title. Location: Publisher.
Mazzeo, J., Druesne, B., Raffeld, P. C., Checketts, K. T., & Muhlstein, A. (1991). Comparability of computer and paper-and-pencil scores for two CLEP general examinations. Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service.
Style Guides APA Format
NOTE: When there is more than one author, use an ampersand symbol (&) before the last author. If a reference has more than seven authors, use the first six authors’ names, and then use ellipses after the sixth author’s name. After the ellipses, list the last author’s name of the work.
Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Ed.). (Year). Book title. Location: Publisher.
Feldman, P. R. (Ed.). (1997). British women poets of the romantic era. Baltimore: Johns
NOTE: If there is no author, treat an editor as the author, and put the abbreviation “Ed.” in parentheses. Use “Eds.” if there is more than one editor.
EDITION OTHER THAN THE FIRST
Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year). Book title (Edition number). Location: Publisher.
Helfer, M. E., Kempe, R. S., & Krugman, R. D. (1997). The battered child (5th ed.). Chicago, IL:
University of Chicago Press.
ARTICLE OR CHAPTER IN AN EDITED BOOK
Last name, First initial. Middle initial., & Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year). Title of chapter. In
A. Editor & B. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pages of chapter). Location: Publisher.
O’Neil, J. M., & Egan, J. (1992). Men’s and women’s gender role journeys: Metaphor for healing,
transition, and transformation. In B. R. Wainrib (Ed.), Gender issues across the life cycle (pp. 107-123). New York, NY: Springer.
ARTICLE IN A REFERENCE BOOK
Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year). Article title. In Book title (Volume number, pages). Location: Publisher.
Bergmann, P. G. (1993). Relativity. In The new encyclopedia Britannica (Vol. 26, pp. 501- 508).
Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica.
ARTICLE IN A JOURNAL
Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year). Title of article. Journal Title, Volume(Issue), pages.
Craner, P. M. (1991). New Tool for an Ancient Art: The Computer and Music. Computers and the
Humanities, 25, 303-313.
ARTICLE IN A MAGAZINE
Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year, Month Day). Article title. Magazine Title, Volume, pages.
Mehta, P. B. (1998, June 6). Exploding myths. New Republic, 290, 17-19.
ARTICLE IN A NEWSPAPER
Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year, Month Day). Article title. Newspaper Title, pages.
Schwartz, J. (1993, September 30). Obesity affects economic, social status. The Washington Post, pp.
ARTICLE RETRIEVED FROM AN ELECTRONIC DATABASE
Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year). Article title. Journal Title, Volume, pages. Retrieved Month
Day, Year, from Database title database.
VandenBos, G., Knapp, S., & Doe, J. (2001). Role of reference elements in the selection of resources by psychology undergraduates. Journal of Bibliographic Research, 5, 117-123. Retrieved July 2,
2004 from PsycINFO database.
Style Guides APA Format
REPORT FROM A PRIVATE ORGANIZATION, AVAILABLE ON ORGANIZATION WEBSITE
Organization name. (Year, Month Day). Title. Retrieved Month Day, Year, from complete web address
Canarie, Inc. (1997, September 27). Towards a Canadian health IWAY: Vision, opportunities and future steps. Retrieved November 8, 2000, from http://www.canarie.ca/press/publications
PERSONAL INTERVIEW OR COMMUNICATION
Since exact information gathered through personal communication is not retrievable, only cite personal
communication in text. Include the person’s initials and last name and the exact date of contact. (T. T. Williams, personal communication, April 14, 2002)
WEB DOCUMENT, PAGE, OR REPORT
Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Date of publication). Title of document. Retrieved from full URL.
Angeli, E., Wagner, J., Lawrick, E., Moore, K., Anderson, M., Soderland, L., & Brizee, A. (2010, May
5). General format. Retrieved from http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/
Source: The Writing Lab & The OWL at Purdue and Purdue University. (2008). Retrieved from
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