The main sources of ‘ways to know’ human knowledge includes: reason, experience, authority, intuition and faith. Analyze the following sentences; categorize them according to these sources mentioned above and justify why you had selected the one – or more than one – ways of learning.

1) “God created the world in seven days; I read it in the Bible in my Religious Studies class.”
2) “Thailand is fighting for freedom and democracy in the world; I have heard politicians say this
many times, over several years.”
3) “Sometimes the heat is above 38°C in Bangkok at around the Songkran time of year; and I have experienced that heat and humidity myself, more than once.”
4) “The primary reason of what started the Second World War is based on how bad the German
economic crisis had developed in the 1930s. I read that fact in my textbook in a history class in school.”
5) “Obviously, either my friend Peter was lying to me or our friend Brian was lying, when Peter told me that he had been at his home all alone yesterday evening, but Brian had said to me that Peter had told him that Peter had been with his girlfriend at her house all night long.” Peter could not have been in two places simultaneously, at the same time.
Language and communication
1) Can a person think and communicate without knowing a word-based language?
Give good arguments for your answer.
2) “The meaning of a word is based on a social accepted agreement. This agreement exists before the individual member of any society or community is born.”Explain what is meant by this statement and provide good examples to support your answer.
The Concept of Perception:
1) Which survival skill benefits are there in the five senses of the human body that you value the most to see, hear, taste, feel, or smell? Explain why you would never want to lose one of these senses.
2) Is human perception a natural phenomenon, or is it based on how a person is nurtured in a specific culture and in their unique environment?
Read the following short story and answer the following 3 question below the answer should be based on Personal reflection
The Blind Men and the Elephant
Several blind men were feeling an elephant and describing what they perceived as their truth.
The one touching the trunk said it was a large snake;
The one touching one ear said it was a large hand-fan;
The one touching the tusk said it was a sharp and dangerous spear
The one touching the leg said it was it was a tree trunk.
The one touching the body and said it was a wall
The one touching the tail said it was a rope.
So, all six men declared their own opinion of what was right to them and what they understood an elephant to be. Each was partly in the right, but all were in the wrong! Even if they had combined their individual truths together, they could never have succeeded in being able to obtain the whole ‘truth’ of the bigger picture. It was not a wall and a snake and a fan and a rope and a spear. It was an elephant.
Blind Men and the Elephant – The Philosophical Parable
“The Blind Men and the Elephant” story is an ancient parable that is used today as a warning for people who promote their own agendas and belief systems to be the ‘absolute truth’ or to defend some exclusive religious or philosophical, or political claim. The difficulty of understanding the reality of what is ‘true’ or what is ‘real’ is that the human sensory perceptions and personal life experiences can lead to a very limited access and misunderstood interpretations. Any individual person, no matter how educated they are; or how far they have travelled in the world and how many cultures they have lived within, they will still have only a limited ability to fully understand what is the genuine ‘truth.’
(Qu.1) How can a person use the ‘Blind Men and the Elephant’ philosophical parable to try
and overcome intolerance, hate and the ‘we are right and you are wrong’ mentality?
(Qu.2) “The concept of ‘Time’ was created by humans. It is an entirely theoretical construction
based on the units of seconds, minutes, hours, days, weeks, months and years; plus, night and day that was created by humans for their own specific purposes.”
Present both sides of the argument: 1) Explain that this statement is not correct; and 2) Explain that this statement is correct. 3) In the conclusion you will present your own understanding of whether Time exists and is ‘eternal’ or whether it is a theoretical concept that has absolutely no other meaning or use other than what humans have given to it.
(Qu.3) In the 1500s, the Roman Catholic church had so much political power that it promoted the idea of Geocentrism, that the sun, the moon and every planet revolved around the planet Earth as the centre point, which had been promoted by Ptolemy and had been followed as the ‘truth’ for hundreds of years.
However, the Copernican model was introduced in 1543 and moved away from the theory of Geocentrism. Copernicus and Galileo were two of the founders of what became known as the ‘Scientific Revolution’ which started the development of modern science. Through scientific research, they introduced the concept of Heliocentrism where the earth and other planets revolved around the sun as being the centre of the universe.
The new scientific discovery was investigated by the Roman Inquisition in 1615, which concluded that the concept of heliocentrism was “absurd in philosophy, and formally heretical since it explicitly contradicts in many places the sense of Holy Scripture” which implied that anyone who followed this belief was a sinner because the belief was heresy and dissent to the Catholic church teachings. Galileo was put under house arrest for the rest of his life.
Explain why the Catholic church had such power over promoting one theory and denying another theory, both of which can only be a hypothesis on how different planets move in connection to each other. Why does it matter for an authority regime with great power, to force academic researchers, politicians and every member of the population to follow one theory or another as the ‘truth’ – when both theories are based on hypotheses, based on observations, calculations, physics, chemistry and mathematics, but would not change the daily routine of any person who gets up, goes to work, comes home, eats, sleeps, then gets up the next day to continue the daily routine for years and years?
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