software Engineering

Task: write a summary to the below mention Quality models in your own words to answer the following question.
Q.1: what is quality? Give an example.
Q.2: why quality is important in software industry? Give example
Q.3: what are the attributes can be included in measurement to gauge the quality of a software?
Q.4: write short summary on the below mention five quality models. Summary must include the attributes used to measure the quality of software.
Q.5: A chart is given on next page. You are required to read all the five quality models and tick the quality attributes used in the models on the table.
(For example, if usability is used in a model xyz, than on column xyz model, tick the usability row with yes tick. )
Q.6: Guess a model which is more suitable and in practice now a days to gauge the quality.
 
Note: Use any source (books, internet, magazine, journals etc) to read and understand testing techniques used in software industry.
 
Instructions:

  • It is an individual assignment.
  • In case of any plagiarism or copy/paste, both parties will get zero marks.
  • Write in your own words.
  • Late submission will not be considered at any cost.

 
Tick √ or write ok against the attributes used in the model. As an example: Tick is placed in Mccall for Reliability

Quality Characteristics McCall Boehm FURPS IEEE ISO 9126
Stability
Integrity
Security
Maturity
Usability
Accuracy
Flexibility
Efficiency
Reliability √ (Example)
Portability
Testability
Reusability
Functionality
Analyzability
Modifiability
Performance
Install Ability
Supportability
Interpretability
Maintainability
Fault Tolerance
Understandability
Time Management
Self-contentedness
Availability
Human Factors
interoperability
compliance
Suitability
Replace ability
adaptability
Device Independence

Introduction  (Read all the pages 3 to 6) to answer the question asked in assignments
 The main aspects of the quality at which every software engineer should focus himself are reviewed and compared [4] in this paper. Now a days, in modern age of technology large firms and companies spend millions and billions of dollars at the IT projects to get precise and efficient software services. Our first point is, what is meant by quality [1] in software products. What should we do to a software product to decide it as a quality product, simply a good product or name it as a failed product? Many papers have been published about the causes of project failure e.g. [8]. Several models and many success factors are presented for effective and precise management of projects to make up the quality of products [5]. This paper is taking a review by examining factors and points discussed in different models like Boehm, McCall and many others[9][8]. We also illustrates their impact on quality of the software product.
Secondly, many models are presented by different researchers, organizations and scientists. Most of the scientists followed the basic models of software quality presented by the McCall, Boehm, and FURPS. On the basis of these models IEEE and ISO presented new models and also did many additions like ISO 9126. This paper emphasizes all these models of quality factors and explains a comparison between them. How to measure the quality of software and which scales are defined to measure it, are also mentioned in the paper. At the end, effect of quality at the cost and demand of software will also be discussed.
We have reviewed and compared the following software quality models in this paper:

  1. McCall’s software Quality Model
  2. Boehm’s software Quality Model
  3. FURPS software Quality Model
  4. IEEE software Quality Model
  5. ISO 9126 software Quality Model

A quality model is mostly stated as a set of characteristics like document clarity, design trace-ability, integrity, program reliability, test integrity and relationships among them which truly provide the foundation for identifying the requirements of quality and calculating quality. It can be identified as defined set of properties that are required for a product to meet stated purposes. The advantage of quality model is determined by the decomposition of main objects like product, process or organization in the list of its properties and characteristics. It is applicable for forecasting, guaranteeing and authenticating the accomplishment of a well-defined goal.
Quality Defined

  1. As the quality of any object/thing in universe can be defined as:

“The measure of standard of any object/thing against the other objects/things of same kind is known as the quality of that object/thing.”
OR
“It can also be defined as the degree of superiority or inferiority of something as compare to the other things of same type.”
For example the quality of a computer depends on the speed of the computer, reliability of the computer, consistency of the computer and many other factors like that. Similarly, the dictionary definitions of quality in computing largely concentrated on excellence and improvement in product International Standards(IS) professional’s should focus.

  1. Quality according to ANSI Standard can be define as

“Quality is the sum of characteristics and features of a software product or a service that bears on its capacity to fulfill the given needs”

  1. Quality according to IEEE Standard (IEEE Std. 729-1983)
  1. “All the characteristics and features of a software product which stand on its capacity to fulfill the particular requirements [6]: for example, follow to conditions.
  2. The grade to which software keeps a wanted mixture of features.
  3. The mark at which a consumer observes that software meets his mutual outlooks.
  4. The multiple characteristics of software that define the unit according to which the software product in use will meet the hopes of the customer”.

General Kinds of the Models
Now a days, most of the quality models are hierarchical models which are based on the basic principles of the quality and related metrics [7]. All of these models are classified on the basis of the means and ways according to which they have been generated. These are categorized into the following three types.

  1. The assumed model is based on the hypothesis relationships among variables used.
  2. The model based on data-driven by a statistical analysis of related matrix in model.
  3. This model is the mutual effect of hunches which are used to determine the simple type of the model and secondly the Data analysis used to formulate the constants of the model along with the variable values.

Different Quality Models
4.1 McCall’s Quality Model
This was the first ever quality model presented by the Jim McCall in year 1977 which is also called General Electronic Model [8]. Before presenting this model there was no any authentic model to review or check the quality of the product. This model provides a set of the basic characteristics to measure the quality of product.
Three major perceptions of the McCall model for declaring and recognizing the quality of the product are presented following:

  1. Product Operation: The degree of any product that how much quickly and easily it can be understood, it includes, reliability, correctness, efficiency, integrity and usability criteria.
  2. Product Revision: it covers the maintainability, testability, changeability, flexibility and debugging of the product.
  3. Product Transition: it deals with the adaptability with the environment, portability, reusability and interoperability of the product.

4.2Boehm’s Quality Model
Boehm’s software quality model [9] offers more attributes and characteristics of product than McCall’s quality model. It was presented by Barry W. Boehm in 1978. Boehm’s model is almost similar to the McCall Quality Model because it also presents a hierarchical quality model designed about high-level, intermediate level and primitive characteristics, each of them plays an important role in the overall quality level. All above stated levels represent the questions of buyer, the quality factor which can affect or represent the quality of product and offers the basis for describing qualities metrics.
Almost both Boehm’s and McCall’s models similar to some extent [10].The difference in these two models is that McCall’s model mainly centers on the accurate measurement of the high-level characteristics “As-is utility”. On other hand Boehm’s quality model is dependent on a broader range of characteristics with a stretched and detailed emphasis on primarily maintainability.
4.3 FURPS Quality Model
FURPS model was presented after the McCall’s and Boehm’s model. It was firstly presented by Robert Grady and Hewlett Packard Co. the abbreviation of word FURPS stands for Functionality, Usability, Reliability, Performance and Supportability of the product under development [11].

  1. Functionality: Functionality contains combination of characteristics, security, features and capabilities.
  2. Usability: This section covers the factors which affect usability of the product like Human Factors, Aesthetic, material of training and documentation of the user.
  3. Reliability: It ensures the reliability and integrity factors like Recovery to failures Time among failures, Frequency and severity of failures.
  4. Performance: Enforces conditions on practical necessities like speed, availability, efficiency, throughput, accuracy, resource usage, response time and recovery time.
  5. Supportability: This section contains the components like Extensibility, Adaptability, Maintainability, Compatibility, Configurability, Install ability, Serviceability and Localizability.

4.4 IEEE Quality Model
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) [12]. It is an international organization which also provided many standard models for the software product quality and maintenance. It presented, many standards of software quality assurance and verification/validation of the software product. The abstract figure of IEEE software quality models is given forward:
This model illustrates several ways for the measurement of qualitative factors and reflects factors like Efficiency, Functionality, Maintainability, Portability, Reliability and Usability.
Efficiency: It includes the characters like time and resources.
Reliability: It contains the factors and the characteristics which are used to increase and maintain the maturity and reliability by fault tolerance and Recoverability.
Functionality: It includes characteristics like accuracy, compatibility, completeness, security and interoperability.
Supportability: It helps in maintaining the testability, extendibility and correct ability.
Portability: It makes the software portable by ensuring characteristics like hardware independency, software independency, adaptability, install-ability and reusability.
Usability: It ensures the comprehensibility, communicativeness and ease of learning.
4.5 ISO 9126 Quality Model
ISO 9126 [14] [13] is presented by the international standard organization. It is one of the most implemented and used quality model for maintaining the quality of the software product. This modern model is based at the previous models like McCall, Boehm, FURPS and many other old versions of the ISO like ISO 9000 and etc.
This version of ISO also takes account of functionality as parameter and include identification of both internal quality characteristics and external quality characteristics of the products. The characteristics new version of this model [15] contains are Efficiency, Maintainability, Functionality, Reliability, Portability and Usability.
Efficiency: It contains the characters which affects the throughput in a given time and resources used.
Reliability: It includes the Maturity, Fault Tolerance and Recoverability.
Functionality: It contains many essential characteristics which are necessary for the proper functionality of the product like suitability, accurateness, interoperability, compliance and security.
Maintainability: It helps in maintaining the changeability, stability and testability by using analyzability.
Portability: It makes the software more dynamic and portable by ensuring characteristics like adaptability, install-ability, conformance and replaceability.
Usability: It makes sour that the learnability and operability of the software product should be easy and simple.

  1. Comparison of Models

According to the above study and figures we did a comparison between all of the models to justify our competitive study.
McCall Model: according to the reference [] and the figure 1 of McCall model we can observe it can say following characteristics are included in this model correctness, reliability, efficiency, integrity, usability, flexibility, maintainability, testability, portability, interpretability and reusability.
Boehm’s Model: As shown in the above figure 2 and the literature the characteristics owned by the Boehm’s model [] are device independence, self-contentedness, understandability, modifiability, testability, human engineering, efficiency and reliability.
FURPS Model: FURPS is the combination of functionality, usability, reliability, performance and supportability these are further classified into security, capabilities, availability, efficiency, throughput, accuracy, resource, response time, integrity, failures, human factors, documentation, extensibility, maintainability, compatibility, install ability and serviceability. All these characteristics are mentioned in reference no. .
IEEE Model: As we mentioned above the IEEE model is consist of the external and internal characteristics like functionality, reliability, supportability, usability, efficiency and portability these external characteristics are sub divided into internal characteristics like time, resources, error tolerance, availability, completeness, accuracy, security, compatibility, interoperability, testability, correct ability, hardware independence, software independence, install ability, reusability, usability, comprehensibility, ease of learning, extensibility and communicativeness .
ISO 9126 Model: ISO 9126 is the combination of all the models it includes all the best characteristics which are necessary for building up a satisfactory product. The main characteristics of the ISO model are functionality, reliability, maintainability, usability, efficiency and portability. The derived sub characteristics form those main characteristics are suitability, accurateness, interoperability, compliance, security, maturity, fault tolerance, recoverability, understandability, learnability, operability, time behavior, resource behavior, analyzability, changeability, stability, testability, adaptability, install ability, conformance and replace ability.
 
 
 
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