Rules for Quoting

Rules for Quoting
Quotations are useful when you wish to support, illustrate or document important point.
How to quote:

  1. Brief quotations ie. quotations no more than 40 words are normally run into the text and enclosed in double quotation lines. Parenthetical citations for page numbers follow the closing quotation marks but precede the punctuation mark at the end of the sentence( ).
  2. Quotations more than 40 words are separated from the text, indented one inch from the left margin and reproduced without quotation marks. They are introduced with a colon (:).
  3. You may introduce the material, including a direct quotation with the author’s last name. The abbreviation ‘p.’ for page and the page number of the quotation follow in parenthesis.
  4. The order in the parentheses is as follows: Author, Date, page number.
  5. You may combine a direct quotation with your own words. In this case, you don’t have to set off the quotation with punctuation. However, do not forget the quotation marks.
  6. If a quote is introduced with a complete sentence, use a colon to introduce the quote.
  7. If a quote is introduced with part of a sentence, use a comma.
  8. If you wish to make any changes, use square brackets.
  9. If there is an error in the quote, do not change it. Write sic in square brackets. [sic]
  10. If you are quoting something that is already in quotation marks, use single quotation marks within the double quotation marks.
  1. Use three dots with a space before, between, and after each dot (ellipsis points) when omitting material. Use four dots, with no space before the first, if the omitted material includes the end of a sentence. Do not use dots at the beginning or end of a quotation unless it is important to indicate the quotation begins or ends in mid-sentence.
  1. If you use italics to add emphasis to part of an extended quotation put [italics added] immediately afterward
  1. For two-author citations, spell out both authors on all occurrences.
  2. For a work with three or more authors, include the name of only the first author plus “et al.” in every citation (even the first citation).APA 7th edition
  3. Include a page reference after the year, outside quotes. For example: The author stated, “The effect disappeared within minutes” (Lopez, 1993, p. 311), but she did not say which effect; Lopez found that “the effect disappeared within minutes” (p. 311). The sentence quoted is capitalized only if it follows a comma, and is a complete sentence not merged into the flow of the text.
  4. Always capitalize proper nouns, including author names and initials: D. Jones.
  5. If you refer to the title of a source within your paper, capitalize all words that are four letters long or greater within the title of a source: Permanence and Change. Exceptions apply to short words that are verbs, nouns, pronouns, adjectives, and adverbs: Writing New Media, There Is Nothing Left to Lose. (Note: in your References list, only the first word of a title will be capitalized: Writing new media.)
  6. When capitalizing titles, capitalize both words in a hyphenated compound word: Natural-Born Cyborgs.
  7. Capitalize the first word after a dash or colon: “Defining Film Rhetoric: The Case of Hitchcock’s Vertigo.”
  8. Italicize or underline the titles of longer works such as books, edited collections, movies, television series, documentaries, or albums: The Closing of the American Mind; The Wizard of Oz; Friends.
  9. Put quotation marks around the titles of shorter works such as journal articles, articles from edited collections, television series episodes, and song titles: “Multimedia Narration: Constructing Possible Worlds”;.

( Adapted from The Owl at Purdue)
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