BSC203 INTRODUCTION TO ICT RESEARCH METHODS
Project Management Portfolio
Table of Contents
Project Management Portfolio. 1
5.1 Answer to questions in part 2. 6
Explain what a critical path is. 6
Which tasks in this project are NOT on the critical path?. 6
How much slack time do these tasks have?. 6
What does this mean in terms of project completion?. 7
5.2 Answer to questions in part 2. 7
5.3 Critical path report from part 5. 7
7.1 Answer to the questionsin Step 3. 10
7.2 Answer to the question in Step 6. 10
7.3 Answer to the question in Step 7. 10
7.4 Answer to the question in Step 9. 10
7.5 Answer to the question in Step 10. 10
7.6 Answer to the questions in Step 11. 11
7.7 Answer to the question in Step 15. 11
7.8 Answers to the question in Step 16. 11
7.9 Image of the tracking Gantt chart at the end of Step 16. 11
8.1 Introduction. 12
8.2 Achievement of scope and time constraints. 12
8.3 What went right?. 12
8.4 What went wrong?. 12
8.5 Lessons learned. 12
8.6 Implications for the Poster Presentation project. 13
Scope Statement (Version 01)
|Project Title: Design, implementation, and evaluation of Anti-Phishing Phil
|Project Justification: (What is this project trying to achieve and why?)
The purpose of the project is to design, implementation, and evaluation of Anti-Phishing Phil, a game to teach people how to protect themselves from phishing attacks. Study shows that the anti-phishing software programs are not successful in detecting fraudulent sites since the threat awareness requires conceptual and procedural knowledge which the software lacks, sometimes the anti-phishing software even block legitimate sites. Since there is evidence that well designed user security education can be effective for users’ safe web browsing alertness, the project is developing web based training materials, contextual training, and embedded training expecting to improve users’ ability to avoid phishing attacks.
|Deliverables – Characteristics and Requirements ( these help determine the acceptance criteria: How do the stakeholders determine they get what they asked for?)
1. The game should be designed using Reflection principle, Story-based agent environment principle, and Conceptual–Procedural principle.
2. The game should include how to identify fraudulent sites, where to look for cues in browsers, and how to use search engines to find legitimate sites.
3. Game should have engaging story, challenging Mechanics, and up to date technology to support wide range of users.
4. Learning messages should appear in appealing way during the game.
5. An evaluation study to be conducted to measure effect of the game.
|Project Boundary: (what is NOT included in this project?)
1. The game is being developed primarily for playing in web browsers. Development of smartphone apps are not provisioned.
2. Ongoing maintenance of the system is excluded.
3. Hardware/software upgrades are excluded.
|Constraints and Assumptions:
1. The learning messages in the game are based on currently available technology on the subject matter. Awareness on newly appeared phishing tactics cannot be incorporated.
2. Outsourcing vendor will have adequate Hardware/Software resources.
3. Project to be completed within the budget and timeline stated in the project charter.
4. Project objective to be achieved at the closure of the project.
The Gantt chart is enclosed in the attachment, labelled as Gantt chart – from Tutorial 3 Activity 3 part 3.
|SL||Key stakeholders||Description & their likely stance toward the project|
|1||Senior executives||Senior executive with an interest is the project’s sponsor. Executive sponsors are the ultimate decision makers and responsible for lining up the necessary resources, funds, also managing certain activities while the project is underway. Since executive sponsors rarely have enough time to manage projects personally, they must rely heavily on the project manager. The project sponsor approves project charter, funds, project plan, also does acceptance of major deliverables through final completion.|
|2||Patients||As the necessary experimentations will be conducted upon the patients, they will be ultimately impacted. Their decisions during the experimentations and their health condition will impact the timeline and course of the project.|
|3||Patient’s Family||Patient’s family are the ultimate decision maker to allow the patients undergo the experiments. Their expectations and preferences have huge impact on the style of the experiment.|
|4||Medical specialists||Medical specialists are the project team members. Their personal commitment to the project, their contribution are the prime success factors in the project. Therefore, the required availability as per resource plan and their engagement to be ensured.|
|5||Bioengineers||Bioengineers are the project team members. Their personal commitment to the project, their contribution are the prime success factors in the project. Therefore, the required availability as per resource plan and their engagement to be ensured.|
|6||Computer scientists||Computer scientists are the project team members. Their personal commitment to the project, their contribution are the prime success factors in the project. Therefore, the required availability as per resource plan and their engagement to be ensured.|
|7||Suppliers||Suppliers are providing necessary equipment for the trial 3D printing technology to print and implant living bone cells. The timely delivery of the equipment and the quality are prime factors for project success. An effective communication plan to be prepared to ensure their involvement.|
The critical path is the longest sequence of activities in a project plan which must be completed on time for the project to complete on due date. It is the path with the longest duration among the other parallel sequence of activities from project start to finish. At the same time, the longest path is the path that shows the minimal time in which a project can be completed. If there is a delay in one activity of the path, the whole project will be delayed accordingly.
The tasks which has already been completed are no more part of the critical path which were previously on critical path at project inception.
Following are the tasks that are NOT on the critical path in LiteratureReviewGantt.mpp:
All the tasks have slack time of 0 days.
Since the tasks have no slack, every task on the path is critical, and a delay in any task causes a project delay.
Network diagram shows how activities are interrelated with each other from the beginning to end, it is very helpful calculating the overall project duration. After the critical path of the project is determined, activities on the critical path indicates the total duration of the project.
Since interdependencies of activities are visible in the network diagram, it is easier to see which activity can start after which one, which activity depends on each other, predecessors and successors of each activity etc. This allows identifying opportunities to compress the schedule if compression requires during project lifecycle.
A cause-and-effect diagram helps to define and display the major causes, sub-causes and root causes that influence a process or a characteristic. It provides a focus for discussion and consensus and aids to visualize the possible relationships between causes which may be creating problems or defects.
It was first developed in the 1960s by a Japanese quality management expert called Kaoru Ishikawa accordingly named after him. It is also called Fishbone Diagrams because a completed diagram can look like the skeleton of a fish. The problem (or, the effect) placed in which look like the head of the fish, and the and spine of the fish gives space to develop ideas for probable causes. The spine or the main idea then decomposed and categorized in branches in search for the cause.
Cause-and-effect diagrams are an excellent way to explore and visually depict the causes of a problem or defect. They enable the root causes of a problem to be determined. In project management, this helps to be more effective by focusing your actions on the true causes of a problem and not on its symptoms.
A scatter diagram can be used either when one continuous variable that is under the control of the experimenter and the other depends on it or when both continuous variables are independent. If a parameter exists that is systematically incremented and/or decremented by the other, it is called the control parameter or independent variable and is customarily plotted along the horizontal axis. The measured or dependent variable is customarily plotted along the vertical axis. If no dependent variable exists, either type of variable can be plotted on either axis and a scatter plot will illustrate only the degree of correlation (not causation) between two variables.
A scatter diagram can suggest various kinds of correlations between variables with a certain confidence interval. Correlations may be positive (rising), negative (falling), or null (uncorrelated). If the pattern of dots slopes from lower left to upper right, it indicates a positive correlation between the variables being studied. If the pattern of dots slopes from upper left to lower right, it indicates a negative correlation.
In project management, if we know that there is good correlation between two characteristics, we can use one to predict the other, particularly if one characteristic is easy to measure and the other is not.
A Pareto chart is a vertical bar graph in which values are plotted in decreasing order of relative frequency from left to right. Pareto charts are extremely useful for analysing what problems need attention first because the taller bars on the chart, which represent frequency, clearly illustrate which variables have the greatest cumulative effect on a given system.
The Pareto chart provides a graphic depiction of the Pareto principle, a theory maintaining that 80% of the output in a given situation or system is produced by 20% of the input. The independent variables on the chart are shown on the horizontal axis and the dependent variables are portrayed as the heights of bars. A point-to-point graph, which shows the cumulative relative frequency, may be superimposed on the bar graph. Because the values of the statistical variables are placed in order of relative frequency, the graph clearly reveals which factors have the greatest impact and where attention is likely to yield the greatest benefit.
A Pareto chart can be used to quickly identify what project management issues need attention. By using hard data instead of intuition, there can be no question about what problems are influencing the outcome most.
The Projected date for submitting the final report is 29-04-2016.
The activity ‘Search Google Scholar for relevant material’ took an additional day beyond the original estimated duration resulted to delay of starting the following tasks by an additional day. The following task ‘Retrieve Papers’ is dependent on the predecessor task as Finish-to-Start, means the first task need to be finished to allow the second task to start. Consequently, since the first task completed one day behind than the planned, the second task also started one day behind than the planned.
The delay of an additional day due to Search Google Scholar impacts the submission of the final report, the submission of the final report is also going to be delayed by an additional workday. This is because the task ‘Search Google Scholar’ was on the Critical Path. If there is a delay in one activity of the Critical Path, the whole project gets delayed accordingly.
The activity ‘Assess the credibility of the each source’ is not on the Critical Path. It is a parallel activity of ‘Retrieve papers’, hence it’s Late Finish date is the Actual Finish date of ‘Retrieve paper’. Therefore, the successor activity is not delayed as ‘Assess the credibility of the each source’ finishes before the completion of ‘Retrieve papers’. So, this delay does not affect the critical path and accordingly the projected submission date of the final report is not anymore impacted.
The completed tasks are marked as crossed.
This earlier star is not impacting the project completion because 25% of previous activity duration is 0.5 day. Hence, advancing 0.5 day is not influencing the project end.
We made a change of start date of ‘Proof read the Literature Review’, early starting it by 5% of predecessor activity. Now the project is back on track to submit in time by 29-04-2016.
The project was conducted to design, implementation, and evaluation of Anti-Phishing Phil, a game to teach people how to protect themselves from phishing attacks. The game helps people to identify phishing URLs, where to look for cues in web browsers, and how to use search engines to find legitimate sites.
The scope goal has been met. However, we needed 2 weeks of additional time to finish the project.
We conducted a user study in which we compared the effectiveness of the game with existing online training materials and a tutorial we created based on the game. We found that participants who played the game performed better at identifying phishing websites than participants who completed the two other types of training. Using signal detection theory, we also showed that while existing online training materials increase awareness about phishing (which can help people avoid attacks), our game also makes users more knowledgeable about techniques they can use to identify phishing web sites.
We found that users in the game group and the tutorial group performed worse when examining two websites. The first website is a fake address bar attack, where we showed users a PayPal website with the address bar spoofed. Six of the users in the game condition were unable to identify this attack in the post test, whereas only three users in the existing training material condition fell for it. We hypothesize that users are more prone to this kind of attacks because, after the training, they look specifically for clues in the URL, and if the clues confirm their belief, they do not look further.
Although the project schedule was well communicated to the project team members, sometimes they missed the deadlines, in some cases even worse they just did not notice that a task to be started. As a result, we were behind schedule of 2 weeks. Then, I changed my communication style and started regular project team meetings, accordingly by the later phases of the project we found great improvements.
For the Poster Presentation Project, we will plan for a good communication, so that we can avoid slipping delays and issues due to miscommunications. Also, we will make a well-structured project schedule so that we can track and control activities effectively.
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