Introduction to Cyber Security and Digital Crime

Introduction to Cyber Security and Digital Crime
I. Introduction
Cybersecurity has currently become an important cornerstone of the security policies in many countries across the world because it is an interest to various stakeholders including the government agencies, the business organizations that are technology-dependent, the financial organization, business sector, education sector, and many more organizations that exploit the cyberinfrastructure [1]. Digital crimes have dominated the digital networks systems industry for the past several years. Whenever the system administrators invent a solution for any digital attack or the cyber-crime, the cybercriminals counter these solutions with an advanced version of another attack or another malware [6]. This illustrates that as the information technology experts and network engineers are inventing the measures to mitigate the occurrence of the cyber-attacks, the intruders, on the other hand, are inventing the advanced approaches and exploits to attack the developed solution. Cyber terrorism has also emerged to be another significant problem in the technological world. Cyber terrorism can be defined as the use of the internet to conduct violent activities that can lead to threatening, significant body harming, and loss of life, with the objective of gaining ideological or political gains through the use of threats or intimidation.
The increasing international dependence on cyberspace, rapidly and frequently changing technology, the persistent improving threats, and the sustained vulnerabilities are major factors for driving an increase in the societal risk of the cyber-crime attack [5]. Assuring that a broad range of infrastructure is essential for the society that is well functioning is important in the broad range of the areas, including transportation, commerce, and communication. The government, academia, and the industries are trying to build up prior research in computer security principles [5]. The number of vulnerabilities is embedded within the digital devices. As computer networks tend to become more ubiquitous across the globe, cyber terrorism, cybercrime, and cyberwar have recently become one of the most concerning topics of discussion in the world of information security [6]. The potential threats posed by digital crime are daunting, and it is important to research the impacts and the method of mitigating the attacks.
Cybercrime refers to any unlawful activity that involves the usage of a computer, a network, or a networked device. Most of the cybercrimes are performed with the main aim of generating profit or income for the cybercriminals. At the same time, some of the cyber-attacks are carried out with the main objective of destroying the IT systems and the data stored in these information systems. The IT systems comprise all the software, hardware, and network components in an organization. In some cases, the cyber-attacks intend to spread the malware, illegal data, and other unwanted materials to the other machines and probably in an entire network.
One of the major effects of cybercrime is the financial impact. Cybercrime includes many different types of profit-driven illegal activities: email, ransomware attacks, identity fraud, internet fraud, and other attempts to gain access to the individual’s private data and the vulnerable organization’s information
Cybersecurity and digital crime can be defined as the act of exploiting the networks, computer systems, and organizations that are dependent on technology. The attackers use malicious programs to modify the software code, computer data, logic, and logic. This leads to the destructive effects or consequences that can compromise the organization’s data and promulgate the cybercrimes, such as identity stealing and theft.
II.The Definition of Digital Crime
The digital crime or the cybercrime, or computer crime, cybercrime is used to denote the criminal or illegal activities that are done against the networks and computers or using the computer as a tool to perform the activity [3]. However, in the last decade, mobile devices such as mobile devices have been used to extend digital crime. There has been no definition of digital crime until now there has no definite definition of cyber-crime. Digital crime is primarily focused on the insecurity of the data systems, unauthorized access, and the destruction of the data and information systems [3].
III.The Properties of the Digital Crime
Unlike traditional crime have various unique characteristics. It has no geographic boundaries since it can be committed in one country or the region other regions. The more digital crimes offenders usually don’t have the physical trace of that they leave the digital trace.
IV.The History of Digital Crimes
Digital crimes differed and varied since the early years of the 1960s when the telecommunication systems were affected by the cyber-attacks. In the early years of the information system era, computer crimes were performed by the organization employees, and between 1960 up to 1980 there was an increase in the cases of computer attacks. In the 1990s the internet was invented and it modified and transformed computer crime since it became significant in supporting digital crimes. The criminals were capable of accessing the information systems that were not well protected from unauthorized users. by the 21st century, the cyber-crime evolved to become a broader category known as identity theft before moving into fraud from 2008. Currently, computer crime activities are done on the cloud [3].
V.The Internet of Things
The fast-paced development of the IoT and its capability to provide efficient and better services have made the IoT become among the fastest scaling technology. The numbers of the threats have been raising daily, and the incident attacks have been on the increase in both complexity and quantity. The internet of Things (IoT) devices has become popular and ubiquitous, while the IoT services have become pervasive. The IoT devices’ success has been noticed, and there has been an increase in the number of data breaches and threats against these IoT services and devices. The cyber-attacks have been prevalent the IoT devices, and according to the (), it is essential to take a step up and take the issues of digital crime seriously. There is a need to secure the IoT devices; thus, this need has led to a comprehensive understanding of the threats and attacks on the IoT infrastructure. Cyber-attacks are critical in the IoT because various users, things/objects, and devices require authenticating each other through trustable services. The main problem is to find the digital solution of handling the user’s identity, objects/things, and the devices in a secure approach.
There is no definite government agency should have the internet’s primary role. The United States seems to have delegated this question to favor the United States military and has the largest concentration of the legal authority and expertise regarding cyberspace. The individuals who support this development are divided into the appropriate legal rules to provide guidance to the military and its oversight of the internet. The international law specialists on the use of the force argue that the interpretation and analogy, current international law can be used in an approach that allows great freedom without the sending of the message that the USA is lawlessly acting on the internet.
VI. The Common Types of the Digital Crime
There are various types of digital crimes and attacks. This section describes seven categories of digital crimes:
i. The malware attacks. Malware can be defined as a program that is coded to compromise a computer system or a network system in an organization without the user’s consent. The malware includes spyware, virus, ransomware, and command control. The malware is different from the other networks because they have self-replicating property. They can spread from one network to another across a network to cause the infected system’s intended damage.
ii. The Ransomware attacks. The ransomware blocks the user from accessing the private data and threatening to delete the data if the specific amount of money has not been made in terms of ransom. There is a risk of losing the data held because there is no guarantee that after paying the ransom, the user will regain the data. The ransomware can be propagated out through the use of the Trojan that delivers the payload disguised. This Trojan is viewed as a legitimate file in a system. A good example of the primary attack that was caused by the malware includes the wanna cry ransomware attack on the United Kingdom NHS.
iii. The Trojan Horses. These are the malicious software that present it to appear useful. They spread through looking like the routine software and persuade or encourage the victim to install the software. The Trojan horse can be considered to be among the most dangerous malware because they are designed in a way that they can steal information.
iv. The Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attack.
The DDoS attack that was the LOIC event shows one of the various attack patterns have been evolving [2]. The DDOS’s main objective is to close down the service or the network, causing the network or the services not to be accessible by the legitimate users of the network or the system. The attackers accomplish this mission by overwhelming the target with flooding it or massive traffic in that it leads to the triggering of the crash. The legitimate users such as the employees, the system administrators, and the IT specialists of a network or a system are denied access. The DDoS attack mainly targets the web servers of the highest-profile organizations such as governments, financial institutions, E-commerce websites, and media companies. Even if this attack might not necessarily lead to the loss of the data, it can cost the victim a lot of time and cost to mitigate the DDoS.
v.The Password Attack.
The password attack refers to an individual’s attempt to decrypt or obtain the user’s password without the users’ permission or intention or with illegal objectives. The crackers use password sniffers, the cracking softwares, and dictionaries/ however, there are few mechanisms to mitigate the occurrence of the password attacks, which is the remedy or the practice of practicing the passwords policy that includes a minimum length, the mixture of character and numbers, unrecognizable words and frequent changing of the passwords.
The attackers can also use the mechanism of changing passwords to change the stored password and access the user’s data and private information.
vi.The Eavesdropping attacks
These attacks begin with the interception of the network traffic. Using the Eavesdropping network attack, the intruder attempts to steal the legitimate user’s private information that personal devices such as smartphones, digital devices, and computers receive or send. This attack capitalizes on the networks that are unsecured, and they allow the data transmitted to be accessed easily. These attacks also target the weakened transmissions between the server and the client and enable the attacker to receive the network transactions. The attacker then installs the network monitors such as the sniffers on the network server or the computer to perform the eavesdropping or the intercepted attack as the data is being transmitted from the sender to the receiver. All the devices within the receiving and transmitting network are the vulnerable points and include the terminal and the initial networking devices. One approach that can be used to mitigate this attack’s occurrence is identifying and understanding the devices connected to a specific network and the software that should be run on these devices.
VII. References
[1]. Dawson, M. (2015). A brief review of new threats and countermeasures in digital crime and cyber terrorism. In New Threats and Countermeasures in Digital Crime and Cyber Terrorism (pp. 1-7). IGI Global.
[2]. Johnson, M. (2016). Cybercrime, security and digital intelligence. Routledge.
[3]. Mohammed, Safiia. (2015). An Introduction to Digital Crimes. International Journal in Foundations of Computer Science & Technology. 5. 13-24. 10.5121/ijfcst.2015.5302.
[4]. M.E.Kabay, (2008), A Brief History of Computer Crime: An Introduction for Students. MSIA School of Graduate Studies, Norwich University.
[5]. Richet, J. L. (Ed.). (2015). Cybersecurity policies and strategies for cyberwarfare prevention. IGI Global.
[6]. Robert, E., Eric, J. E., & John, L. (2013). Digital crime and digital terrorism. Pearson Publishing.
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