INSTRUCTIONS: Answer ALL the questions

Question One
The Chief Executive of KAVI Limited engaged a Management Consultant to train the heads of the business units on some aspects of management and organization. You attended the training programme as a head of one of the business units.
The management consultant indicated that after training programme you would be expected to submit a well-researched paper on each of the discussion topics.
The training programme was structured into four topics as follows;
1. Principles of organization
The classical writers placed emphasis on definition of structure in terms of division of work, chain of command, span of control and reporting relationships.
Attention was focused on the requirements of the formal organization and the search for a common set of principles applicable to all circumstances. However, the principles should not be bland statements expressed in non-operation terms which give little basis of specific managerial action but should provide general guidance on the structuring of organizations.
2. The contingency approach to management and organization
The contingency approach to management draws attention to the situational factors that account for variations in the structure of organizations.
The contingency approach implies that there is no one absolute “best” design but a multitude of possibilities and the best or preferred choice will be contingent to the situation being analyzed.
The contingency theory has however been subject to a number of criticisms, difficulties and limitations on its practical value to management.
3. Effective control systems
Organization implies control. Organizations require a certain amount of conformity as well as integrity of diverse activities. It is the function of control to being conformity to organizational requirements and achievement of the ultimate purpose of the organization.
Control systems can have positive as well as negative effects and it is important that they are designed and implemented in a constructive way in order to clearly define the characteristics for effectiveness.
4. Criteria for assessment of organizational performance
For performance indicators to be effective, it is important that they are used within an effective performance management framework. It is only by investigating the reasons for unsatisfactory performance and taking remedial actions can performance indicators be of value.
There is a wide range of interrelated individual, group and environmental influences on behavior in the organization of work and therefore many different criteria might be applied as part of an attempt to assess organizational performance and effectiveness.
The management consultant also provided you with handouts and website addresses to enable you prepare a well-researched paper.
Prepare a discussion paper for presentation to the management consultants. (40 marks)
Question Two
Due to the COVID-19 pandemic which has brought about the “new normal” many changes have been experienced by organizations. Using an organization of your choice, discuss the Kublar-Ross change management model that managers can use to introduce and manage change in their organizations. (20 marks)
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