Implement and monitor work health and safety practices

SITXWHS003
Implement and monitor work health and safety practices
Learner Guide
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Table of Contents
Unit of Competency ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 5
Application …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 5
Performance Criteria ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 6
Foundation Skills …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 7
Assessment Requirements ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 8
1. Provide information on health, safety and security. …………………………………………………………… 11
1.1 – Explain relevant WHS information to personnel. ………………………………………………………………. 12
Communication of work health and safety information …………………………………………………………. 12
Workplace requirements ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 14
Duty of care ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 16
Emergency plans ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 16
Security procedures …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 18
Handling chemicals and hazardous substances ……………………………………………………………………… 19
Activity 1A ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 21
1.2 – Make all current WHS information readily accessible to staff. ……………………………………………. 22
Work instructions ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 22
WHS procedures and legislation ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 22
The format of WHS information ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 23
Policies …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 24
Procedures ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 24
Activity 1B ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 25
2. Monitor safe work practices. …………………………………………………………………………………………. 26
2.1 – Monitor adherence to organisational WHS procedures. …………………………………………………….. 27
2.2 – Monitor ongoing compliance with safe work practices. ……………………………………………………… 27
Assessing and maintaining compliance ………………………………………………………………………………… 27
Employer and employee responsibilities ………………………………………………………………………………. 27
Creating a safer workplace …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 28
Monitoring compliance ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 28
Activity 2A ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 31
2.3 – Take prompt action to address non-compliance with procedures and safe work practices. ……. 32
Addressing non compliance ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 32
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Activity 2B ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 33
2.4 – Monitor day-to-day effectiveness of WHS practices in maintaining the health, safety and security of personnel. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 34
Monitoring effectiveness ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 34
Factors involved in monitoring ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 34
Activity 2C ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 35
3. Coordinate consultative arrangements for the management of health, safety and security issues. 36
3.1 – Coordinate the operation of all consultative processes. …………………………………………………….. 37
Consultative processes ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 37
Raising WHS issues …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 37
Activity 3A ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 39
3.2 – Provide opportunity for staff members to contribute their views on current and future WHS management practices. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 40
WHS consultation processes ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 40
Consulting with designated personnel …………………………………………………………………………………. 40
Workplace Health and Safety Officers ………………………………………………………………………………….. 40
Workplace Health and Safety Representatives ……………………………………………………………………… 41
Workplace Health and Safety Committees ……………………………………………………………………………. 42
Activity 3B ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 43
3.3 – Resolve or refer issues raised through WHS consultation to the appropriate person. ……………. 44
Raising issues ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 44
Resolving issues…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 44
Referring issues …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 46
Activity 3C ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 47
3.4 – Provide timely staff and own feedback on WHS management practices to the designated person. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 48
Provide accessible information on outcomes ………………………………………………………………………… 48
Features of good feedback …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 48
Correcting behaviour …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 49
Activity 3D ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 50
4. Implement and monitor procedures for identifying hazards, and assessing and controlling risks … 51
4.1 – Coordinate scheduled hazard identification activities, ensuring hazards are identified at times designated by legislation. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 52
Hazard identification and risk assessment…………………………………………………………………………….. 52
Types of hazards ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 53
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Activity 4A ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 55
4.2 – Identify any hazards on an ongoing basis during own day-to-day workplace operations. ………. 56
Working safely ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 56
Identifying hazards …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 56
Activity 4B ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 58
4.3 – React to reports of hazards by other workers, and coordinate and participate in risk assessments. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 59
Assess risks ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 59
Activity 4C ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 61
4.4 – Implement any risk control methods or refer to appropriate person if control is outside scope of responsibility. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 62
Control risks ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 62
Reporting hazards ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 64
Hazard report forms …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 65
Activity 4D ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 66
4.5 – Monitor effectiveness of control measures, promptly identify any inadequacies, and resolve or report them to the appropriate person. …………………………………………………………………………………… 67
Review control measures ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 67
Appropriate persons ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 67
Activity 4E…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 69
5. Implement and monitor health, safety and security training. ……………………………………………….. 70
5.1 – Identify WHS training needs based on regular staff monitoring. …………………………………………. 71
Identify WHS training …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 71
Training needs analysis ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 72
Activity 5A ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 74
5.2 – Make arrangements for fulfilling training needs. ………………………………………………………………. 75
Arranging and fulfilling training needs ………………………………………………………………………………….. 75
Methods of training …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 76
Activity 5B ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 77
5.3 – Monitor effectiveness of training and make required adjustments. …………………………………….. 78
Monitoring the effectiveness of training ………………………………………………………………………………. 78
Making adjustments ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 79
How to provide assistance ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 79
Activity 5C ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 80
6. Maintain WHS records and reports. ………………………………………………………………………………… 81
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6.1 – Complete WHS records and reports accurately and legibly and store according to organisational and legal requirements. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 82
6.2 – Use data and reports to provide reliable and timely input into the management of workplace health, safety and security. …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 82
WHS records……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 82
Managing computer directories ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 83
Workplace procedures for storing records ……………………………………………………………………………. 83
Ensuring accuracy ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 83
Collection, indexing and filing ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 84
Benefits of data and reports ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 84
Activity 6A ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 85
6.3 – Minimise use of printed materials and maximise electronic transmission and filing of all documents to reduce waste. ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 86
Reducing waste …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 86
Activity 6B ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 88
Summative Assessments ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 89
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Unit of Competency
Application
This unit describes the performance outcomes, skills and knowledge required to implement predetermined work health and safety practices designed, at management level, to ensure a safe workplace. It requires the ability to monitor safe work practices and coordinate consultative arrangements, risk assessments, work health and safety training, and the maintenance of records.
The unit applies to all tourism, travel, hospitality and event sectors and to any small, medium or large organisation.
It applies to those people who operate independently or with limited guidance from others. This includes supervisors and departmental managers.
This unit incorporates the requirement, under state and territory work health and safety (WHS) legislation, for businesses to take a systematic approach to managing the safety of their workers and anyone else in the workplace.
No occupational licensing, certification or specific legislative requirements apply to this unit at the time of publication.
Unit Sector
Cross-Sector
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Performance Criteria
Element
Elements describe the essential outcomes.
Performance Criteria
Performance criteria describe the performance needed to demonstrate achievement of the element.
1. Provide information on health, safety and security.
1.1 Explain relevant WHS information to personnel.
1.2 Make all current WHS information readily accessible to staff.
2. Monitor safe work practices.
2.1 Monitor adherence to organisational WHS procedures.
2.2 Monitor ongoing compliance with safe work practices.
2.3 Take prompt action to address non-compliance with procedures and safe work practices.
2.4 Monitor day-to-day effectiveness of WHS practices in maintaining the health, safety and security of personnel.
3. Coordinate consultative arrangements for the management of health, safety and security issues.
3.1 Coordinate the operation of all consultative processes.
3.2 Provide opportunity for staff members to contribute their views on current and future WHS management practices.
3.3 Resolve or refer issues raised through WHS consultation to the appropriate person.
3.4 Provide timely staff and own feedback on WHS management practices to the designated person.
4. Implement and monitor procedures for identifying hazards, and assessing and controlling risks.
4.1 Coordinate scheduled hazard identification activities, ensuring hazards are identified at times designated by legislation.
4.2 Identify any hazards on an ongoing basis during own day-to-day workplace operations.
4.3 React to reports of hazards by other workers, and coordinate and participate in risk assessments.
4.4 Implement any risk control methods or refer to appropriate person if control is outside scope of responsibility.
4.5 Monitor effectiveness of control measures, promptly identify any inadequacies, and resolve or report them to the appropriate person.
5. Implement and monitor health, safety and security training.
5.1 Identify WHS training needs based on regular staff monitoring.
5.2 Make arrangements for fulfilling training needs.
5.3 Monitor effectiveness of training and make required adjustments.
6. Maintain WHS records and reports.
6.1 Complete WHS records and reports accurately and legibly and store according to organisational and legal requirements.
6.2 Use data and reports to provide reliable and timely input into the management of workplace health, safety and security.
6.3 Minimise use of printed materials and maximise electronic transmission and filing of all documents to reduce waste.
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Foundation Skills
This section describes language, literacy, numeracy and employment skills incorporated in the performance criteria that are required for competent performance.
SKILLS DESCRIPTION Reading skills to: ➢ Interpret unfamiliar and complex materials describing regulatory requirements for WHS management and organisational policies and procedures Writing skills to: ➢ Write high level reports about the effectiveness of WHS management practices, making recommendations for change and complete accurate records for regulatory compliance Oral communication skills to: ➢ Discipline non-compliant personnel ➢ Conduct sometimes complex WHS consultation activities ➢ Explain all WHS procedures and information on safe work practices Problem-solving skills to: ➢ Incorporate the views of other people consulted in the workplace ➢ Analyse WHS system deficiencies and recommend required change Teamwork skills to: ➢ Monitor staff members’ daily compliance with WHS management practices and counsel on non-compliance.
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Assessment Requirements
Performance Evidence
Evidence of the ability to complete tasks outlined in elements and performance criteria of this unit in the context of the job role, and:
➢ Implement and monitor adherence to workplace health and safety procedures in three of the following real or simulated situations:
o evacuation of staff and customers
o security management of cash, documents, equipment, keys or people
o handling chemicals and hazardous substances
o hazard identification and reporting
o incident and accident reporting
o risk assessment and reporting
➢ Coordinate consultative processes for managing the above workplace health, safety and security issues
➢ Coordinate risk assessments, WHS training, and the maintenance of records relating to above situations
➢ Monitor the effectiveness of the WHS system and identify:
o required adjustments
o staff training needs
➢ Demonstrate management practices that must be implemented for compliance with state or territory occupational health and safety (OHS) or WHS legislation during above situations.
Knowledge Evidence
Demonstrated knowledge required to complete the tasks outlined in elements and performance criteria of this unit:
➢ Primary components of relevant state or territory OHS or WHS legislation:
o actions that must be taken for legal compliance
o employer responsibilities to provide a safe workplace
o requirement to consult, and acceptable consultation mechanisms
o requirements for the use of WHS representatives and committees, and their roles and responsibilities
o requirements for hazard identification, risk assessment, risk control and acceptable mechanisms
o requirements for record keeping and acceptable record keeping mechanisms
o requirement to provide information and training
o employee responsibilities to ensure safety of self, other workers and other people in the workplace
o employee responsibility to participate in WHS practices
o ramifications of failure to observe OHS or WHS legislation and organisational policies and procedures
➢ Specific organisation:
o full content of WHS policies and procedures; and consultation, hazard identification, risk assessment and reporting documents
o methods used for WHS consultation, hazard identification and risk assessment
o options for the provision of training:
▪ coaching or mentoring in safe work practices
▪ formal training programs in safe work practices
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o hazard identification, risk assessment and control
o WHS policy and procedure induction
o WHS representative or committee
o provision of information, fact sheets and signage to ensure safe work practices
➢ WHS information:
o consultative arrangements for WHS
o employee roles and responsibilities in WHS management practices
o legal obligations and ramifications of failure to comply
o location of first aid kit and emergency evacuation plan
o WHS training information and updates
o policies:
▪ overall approach of organisation to WHS
▪ participation of personnel in WHS management practices
▪ responsibilities of employees to ensure safety
o procedures
o specific risk control measures relevant to the workplace
o specific regulations and codes of practice
o use of:
▪ hazard identification reporting documents
▪ risk assessment template documents
➢ Consultative processes:
o a diary, whiteboard or suggestion box used by staff to report issues of concern
o fact sheets to fully inform personnel about WHS rights and responsibilities
o formal WHS representatives and committees
o formal meetings with agendas, minutes and action plans
o informal meetings with notes
o WHS discussions with employees during the course of each business day
o recording issues in a management diary
o regular staff meetings that involve WHS discussions
o seeking staff suggestions for content of WHS policies and procedures
o special staff meetings or workshops to specifically address WHS issues
o staff handbook containing WHS information
o surveys or questionnaires that invite staff feedback on WHS issues
➢ Time requirements for hazard identification:
o when changes to the workplace are implemented:
o before the premises are used for the first time
▪ before and during the installation or alteration of any plant
▪ before changes to work practices are introduced
o when any new information relating to health and safety risks becomes available
➢ Required WHS records and reports:
o consultation
o hazard identification
o incident and accident notifications to WHS regulatory authorities
o incident or accident, near miss reports and related statistics
o monitoring reports and recommendations for change:
▪ agendas for and minutes of meetings
▪ committee members
▪ consultation decisions and follow-up actions
▪ consultation processes
▪ diaries of meetings
▪ WHS information provided to personnel
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▪ risk controls
▪ safe work practices
o risk assessments
o risk control actions
o training action plans
o training undertaken.
Assessment Conditions
Skills must be demonstrated in an operational tourism, travel, hospitality or events business operation where WHS management practices are implemented and monitored. This can be:
➢ An industry workplace
➢ A simulated industry environment.
Assessment must ensure access to:
➢ Computers, software programs, printers and communication technology used to administer the implementation and monitoring of a WHS system
➢ Relevant state or territory WHS legislation
➢ Current plain English regulatory documents distributed by the local WHS government regulator
➢ Codes of practice and standards issued by government regulators or industry groups
➢ WHS information and business management manuals issued by industry associations or commercial publishers
➢ Current commercial WHS policies and procedures
➢ Operational team for which the individual coordinates WHS management practices; this can be:
o teams in an industry workplace who are assisted by the individual during the assessment process; or
o individuals who participate in role plays or simulated activities, set up for the purpose of assessment, in a simulated industry environment operated within a training organisation.
Assessors must satisfy the Standards for Registered Training Organisations’ requirements for assessors.
Links
Companion Volume Implementation Guide – http://www.serviceskills.com.au/resources
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1. Provide information on health, safety and security.
1.1. Explain relevant WHS information to personnel.
1.2. Make all current WHS information readily accessible to staff.
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1.1 – Explain relevant WHS information to personnel.
Communication of work health and safety information
Communicating work health and safety information to personnel is an important task. You may need to tailor this to suit different areas of the organisation.
Work health and safety information may include:
➢ Methods used for work health and safety consultation
o group meetings
o one-to-one meetings
o conference calls
o surveys and questionnaires
➢ Emergency evacuation plans
➢ Codes of conduct
➢ Location of first aid kits
➢ Employee roles and responsibilities in work health and safety management practices
➢ WHS legislation, including information on primary components such as the:
o actions that must be taken for legal compliance
o employer responsibilities to provide a safe workplace
o requirement to consult, and acceptable consultation mechanisms
o requirements for the use of WHS representatives and committees, and their roles and responsibilities
o requirements for hazard identification, risk assessment, risk control and acceptable mechanisms
o requirements for record keeping and acceptable record keeping mechanisms
o requirement to provide information and training
o employee responsibilities to ensure safety of self, other workers and other people in the workplace
o employee responsibility to participate in WHS practices
o ramifications of failure to observe OHS or WHS legislation and organisational policies and procedures
➢ WHS websites and blogs
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➢ WHS training information and updates
➢ Legal obligations and ramifications of failure to comply
➢ Newspaper, magazine and journal articles
➢ Incident and hazard logbooks
➢ In-house statistics and data
➢ Methods used for identifying hazards
o exploring the workplace
o speaking with colleagues, managers and supervisors
o examining equipment, materials and substances
o conducting a ‘Hazard and Operability (HAZOP)’ study
▪ a systematic approach to examining each separate part of a work practice, identifying along the way all the potential ways in which hazards can arise
o conducting a ‘Failure Mods and Effects Analysis (FMEA)’
▪ a FMEA is a ‘bottom up method for assessing the ways in which the basic elements of a system, process or piece of equipment can fail, leading to hazards
o the ‘Structured What-If Technique’ (SWIFT)
▪ SWIFT involves a team of experts brainstorming ‘what if?’ scenarios
▪ e.g. ‘What is there is a power cut?’ ‘What if there is a flood?’
➢ Methods used for conducting risk assessments
o assessing in-house statistics and data relating to incidents, hazards and risks
o examining equipment, materials and substances
o exploring the workplace
o qualitative analysis
▪ this involves plotting risks on a graph or matrix
▪ the likelihood of a risk occurring can be ranked horizontally, while the impact of the risk can be ranked vertically
o quantitative analysis
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▪ this involves assigning numbers to risks according to whether they are highly likely or highly unlikely to occur
➢ Organisation-specific policies and procedures
➢ Specific risk control measures for the workplace
➢ Specific regulations and codes of practice
➢ Use of:
o hazard identification reporting documents
o risk assessment template documents.
There are a variety of ways that you could get health and safety information across. You may want to use more than one method.
Communication methods may include:
➢ Team meetings
➢ Conference/presentation
➢ Training day
➢ Email
➢ Website link
➢ Posters
➢ Signs
➢ Booklets and leaflets
➢ Training manuals.
Workplace requirements
It is important for you to know the objectives, components and comprehensive details of relevant state or territory OHS or WHS legislation and the actions that must be taken for legal compliance. Both you and your employer have duties to ensure that you are working within legislative guidance.
Employer duties to provide a safe workplace, for example:
➢ A safe layout of the workplace
➢ Safe design and maintenance of facilities and equipment
o including cleanliness
o regular checks of equipment/facilities safety
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➢ Good lighting that allows workers to move around and complete their work without risk and safe evacuation of the premises
➢ Employer should also provide plans of what to do in an emergency, first aid kits and trained first aiders and personal protective equipment.
Employee duties:
➢ To ensure safety of self, other workers and other people in the workplace
➢ To participate in work health and safety practices
➢ To keep updated with legislation and regulations.
Other regulations govern the:
➢ Requirement to consult, designated times for consultation and acceptable consultation mechanisms
➢ Requirements for the use of work health and safety representatives and committees, and their roles and responsibilities for example:
o the regulations regarding the election of health and safety representatives
➢ Designated times for hazard identification and categories of hazards that must be identified e.g. health of worker if conducting work that means exposure to hazardous substances
➢ Acceptable mechanisms for hazard identification, risk assessment and risk control
➢ Requirements for record keeping and acceptable record keeping mechanisms
➢ Requirements to provide information and training.
These will differ depending on your organisation and the risks and hazards that occur in the workplace. The WHS Act has specific sections regarding certain roles, for example construction work and transportation and specific risks e.g. noise, confined spaces, hazardous manual tasks, falls etc.
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Duty of care
Duty of care refers to the responsibility of each person to do everything within their power to ensure a safe and healthy environment.
Duty of care places into a legal form a moral duty to anticipate possible causes of injury and illness and to everything reasonably practicable to remove or minimise these possible causes of harm. This duty of care is written into the Workplace Health and Safety legislation as obligations.
In a practical way, duty of care in a WHS context includes things such as:
➢ Workplace procedures for controlling risks
➢ Identifying, assessing, controlling risks and reviewing control measures
➢ Providing appropriate training, equipment and PPE
➢ Reporting incidents
➢ Minimising risk.
All adults in a workplace are legally responsible for workplace health and safety issues. Duty of care cannot be delegated.
Emergency plans
An emergency plan is a course of action developed to mitigate the damage of any event that could endanger an organisation and its workers. Emergency plans should include measures that provide for the safety of personnel and, if possible, property and facilities.
Since emergencies will occur, planning is necessary. An urgent need for rapid decisions, shortage of time, and lack of resources and trained personnel can lead to chaos during an emergency. Time and circumstances in an emergency mean that normal channels of authority and communication cannot be relied upon to function routinely. The stress of the situation can lead to poor judgment resulting in severe losses.
When there is an emergency situation, people are less likely to think clearly, and may panic, particularly when exposed to serious and immediate danger. Special plans and procedures are required for emergencies such as: fire, explosion, medical emergency, rescues, incidents with hazardous chemicals, bomb threats, armed confrontations and natural disasters.
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Factors to consider:
➢ How can things go wrong? What is the worst possible outcome?
➢ How will people deal with the problems? You should look at any
particular roles, duties, responsibilities and training needed.
➢ Do people need to evacuate in an emergency? If so, do they know
how and where to go?
➢ What emergency services would need to get to the site? How
would they be raised?
Under Workplace Health and Safety regulation all workplaces must have a safety plan for emergency situations.
Emergency plans should include:
➢ A floor plan of the workplace showing exits, fire extinguishers
and assembly points in plain view of all staff, clients and
visitors
➢ Regular training of staff in evacuation procedures
➢ Regular random fire/evacuation drills
➢ Regular checks and maintenance on all equipment
➢ Signage that clearly marks exits, fire extinguishers, first aid points, etc.
It is important to take all evacuation drills seriously and be familiar with the procedures in place. These procedures can vary for fire, gas leaks, chemical spills, blood spills, natural disasters, bomb threats, hold-ups, threatened physical harm or assault, and injury depending on your workplace, so it is vital to know what is applicable.
Other aspects to cover in emergency plans may include:
➢ How would the alarm (or other appropriate warning device) be raised? What about night and shift working, weekends and possibly times when the premises are closed, e.g. holidays.
➢ Plan what to do, including how to call on the appropriate personnel on site and external emergency services. Assist the team and the external emergency services. Consider how to inform them of hazardous or dangerous materials, if necessary.
➢ Make sure there are enough emergency exits for everyone to evacuate and keep emergency doors and exits unobstructed and clearly marked.
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➢ Nominate someone to take charge and organise people at an assembly point (such as a role call to determine who is present/missing).
➢ Ensure that everyone knows which people have skills or responsibilities, such as First Aiders, fire wardens etc.
➢ Testing of emergency plans, including
frequency.
Emergency plans, or a summary of key elements of emergency plans, should be readily accessible by workers or on display in the workplace, for example on a notice board.
Training may include practising evacuations, identifying assembly points, location of emergency equipment, first aid arrangements and instructions on how to safely shut down machinery.
By knowing procedures and practising them regularly, you will know what to do in the event that an incident occurs. It is important to perform to your level of training and not try to perform tasks you do not know how to do.
Security procedures
Although specific security procedures will vary from business to business, there are several general principles you should stick to, when handling cash, documents, equipment, keys and other sensitive materials to ensure that your working practice is effective.
When handling cash, documents, equipment, keys and other sensitive materials, you should:
➢ Handle them in a private, locked space such as an office
➢ Try to handle them while at least one other member of staff is on site, so that you can ask questions about any anomalies
➢ Always use a ‘cashing up’ sheet and sales record when handling cash
➢ Only handle medium-to-large sums of cash when the shop is closed and the doors locked
➢ Balance cash receipts and payments
➢ Maintain as little cash on the premises as possible
➢ Make frequent bank deposits
➢ Deposit large bills in a drop safe
➢ Make records of the documents you have accessed and when
➢ Back up documents electronically
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➢ Appoint a staff member to look after equipment and keys at all times
➢ Designate specific locations for storing equipment and keys
➢ Make records of the location of equipment and keys
➢ Try to vary routines so that unscrupulous individuals cannot time a robbery.
Implementing guidelines
It also helps to implement guidelines to ensure that everyone on the premises is following the same process. This is especially important if you run a small business where staff may be left alone for long periods of time or have sole responsibility for cash handling and documenting activities throughout their shifts.
Taking a strict approach to discrepancies
It is important to take a strict approach to discrepancies because, while the odd loss here and there may not seem like a big problem, it could be an indicator of a much larger issue. You should encourage staff to handle cash and documents with care and to record all discrepancies. This will foster a culture of accountability.
Handling chemicals and hazardous substances
It may also be necessary to detail organisational policies, procedures and guidelines relating to the handling of chemicals and hazardous substances. Such substances may come in the form of solids, liquids, gasses and fumes and can be extremely harmful to individuals and the environment. If they happen to be ingested, inhaled or touched, they can lead to all manner of problems including poisoning, contamination burns and corrosion.
You should always emphasise the importance of:
➢ Employees familiarising themselves with the chemicals and hazardous substances they use
➢ Employees being able to identify all tools and products that can be classed as hazardous or contain hazardous material
➢ Wearing personal protective equipment (PPE) such as gloves, overalls, boots, safety goggles, respirators, helmets, etc.
➢ Only handling chemicals and hazardous substances when they know how
➢ Enlisting the help of outside specialists when necessary
➢ Separating hazardous substances from other substances
➢ Following manufacturer instructions, work health and safety policies and all laws and regulations (at both state and federal level).
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Reporting incidents and accidents
Despite all the hazards you identify and all the risk controls you implement, incidents and accidents will occur. This is sometimes inevitable as it is impossible to legislate for every eventuality. The important thing is to deal with them swiftly and effectively, part of which means reporting incidents and accidents as soon as they happen.
Each organisation will have its own policies, procedures and guidelines for reporting incidents and accidents. However, there are certain guidelines to bear in mind that are universally important to all organisations, regardless of the work they undertake.
When reporting incidents and accidents, it is important to:
➢ Do so as soon as possible
➢ Report to the appropriate authorities
➢ Report verbally and on record
➢ Report all necessary details, including:
o the time of the incident/accident
o the date of the incident/accident
o the location of the incident/accident
o who was involved
o the reasons (or likely reasons) why the incident/accident occurred
➢ Log the incident/accident in the incident/accident logbook.
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Activity 1A
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1.2 – Make all current WHS information readily accessible to staff.
Work instructions
Work instructions provide workers with a detailed description of how to accomplish a specific job. They include a set of step-by-step instructions to help workers to complete a specific task. They often include visual aids and assembly instructions.
Work instructions may:
➢ Have fewer than ten separate actions
➢ Be completed in a short amount of time
➢ Only need one person to be involved.
Examples of work instructions in relation to health and safety within the workplace include:
➢ User instructions
➢ Labels
➢ Assembly instructions
➢ Equipment maintenance
➢ Work standards.
Although these three things have different purposes, in order to guarantee the smooth running of an organisation, they should all be used together.
WHS procedures and legislation
The WHS procedures and work instructions that are in place within your organisation should be identified and implemented by every worker. They should comply with the relevant legislation, regulations and codes of practice.
The WHS Act 2011 sets out a consistent framework that must be complied with in order to secure the health and safety of workers.
The WHS Act 2011:
➢ Protects workers from harm by eliminating or minimising risks
➢ Provides effective workplace representation
➢ Encourages organisations to help achieve a safe workplace
➢ Promotes the use of health and safety advice, information, education and training
➢ Uses compliance and enforcement measures effectively and appropriately
➢ Monitors and reviews people with duties and power
➢ Ensures continuous improvement and higher standards.
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The topics discussed within the WHS Act 2011 include:
➢ Health and safety duties
➢ Incident notification
➢ Authorisations
➢ Consultation, representation and participation
➢ Enforcement measures.
The WHS Act 2011 can be found in more detail at www.safeworkaustralia.gov.au.
When designing and implementing WHS procedures and work instructions, the organisation should involve workers. This will help to promote awareness, increase understanding and improve compliance. Once procedures and work instructions are in place, they should be reviewed and assessed regularly.
The format of WHS information
It is important that work health and safety policies and procedures are in formats that staff can access and understand. It is a good idea to use a variety of formats and methods in different ways in order to help promote the relevant WHS information.
Formats and methods may include:
➢ Promotion of WHS information during training
➢ Group meetings
➢ Formal and informal discussions
➢ Electronic via your organisation’s website, sent via email, printed and stored in a designated place
➢ Posters and information booklets specific to each area of work and the hazards involved.
➢ Safety signs
➢ Work instructions.
Relevant WHS information may include:
➢ WHS policies and procedures
➢ Work instructions
➢ WHS legislation.
Work health and safety policies and procedures may cover:
➢ Coaching or mentoring in safe work practices
➢ Formal training programs in safe work practices
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➢ Hazard identification, risk assessment and control
➢ Work health and safety policy and procedure induction
➢ Work health and safety representative or committee
➢ Provision of information, fact sheets and signage to ensure safe work practices.
Policies
Policies are adopted and used by organisations to ensure their long-term goals and objectives are reached. They are usually guidelines or statements that outline certain principles and rules and are often published in a booklet. An example of a policy that might be used within an organisation is a Workplace Health and Safety (WHS) policy.
Procedures
Procedures are the specific methods that are put in place to ensure the daily operations of the organisation are carried out in a way that expresses the policy that has been adopted. A procedure defines how work should be performed, detailing who should do what and when they should do it.
A procedure may:
➢ Have three or more small tasks
➢ Involve more than one person
➢ Have several separate actions
➢ Be completed within one continuous time frame.
An example of the procedures that should be in place within every organisation is the WHS procedures. Following on from the policy, the WHS procedures ensure that the daily operations of an organisation are done in a safe way.
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Activity 1B
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2. Monitor safe work practices.
2.1. Monitor adherence to organisational WHS procedures.
2.2. Monitor ongoing compliance with safe work practices.
2.3. Take prompt action to address non-compliance with procedures and safe work practices.
2.4. Monitor day-to-day effectiveness of WHS practices in maintaining the health, safety and security of personnel.
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2.1 – Monitor adherence to organisational WHS procedures.
2.2 – Monitor ongoing compliance with safe work practices.
Assessing and maintaining compliance
You should assess and maintain the ongoing compliance with OHS or WHS legislation. You should regularly check that you meet these.
You should check that:
➢ WHS documents are updated
➢ You consult all personnel according to legislation requirements
➢ You include self-employed/contracted workers and visitors in your policy
➢ All staff are fully trained and regularly refreshed with compliance
➢ Any accidents/incidents (including near misses) are analysed to find the cause and rectified.
You can use the safe work Australia website: http://www.safeworkaustralia.gov.au/sites/SWA (accessed 23/06/2016) to research any changes to legislation, regulatory requirements or standards and codes.
Employer and employee responsibilities
Employers have a responsibility to provide a work environment free from hazards and to ensure the health and safety of themselves, their workers and other people in the workplace.
Employers meet these responsibilities by complying with the relevant workplace health and safety regulations that govern their type of business and by following the Advisory Standard or adopting an effective ways of managing exposure to risks. Employers who do not meet their obligations may face severe penalties (fines, imprisonment, lawsuits).
Workers meet their responsibilities by following organisational WHS procedures and acting in a way that does not place at risk their own health and safety or that of any other person. This relates to removing or dealing with hazards of any type.
Responsibilities can vary depending on their industry, job role and training.
For example, in relation to manual handling, employers must provide a workplace designed to minimise risk from hazards of back injury. This includes features such as furniture, equipment and containers used in the workplace.
In cases where manual handling is necessary, employers must provide one or more of the following:
➢ Mechanical lifting aids
➢ Sufficient staff to allow team-lifting procedures
➢ Adequate information, instruction, training and supervision to enable employees to work without risk to health and safety.
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Workers must ensure that wherever possible:
➢ Correct lifting procedures are followed
➢ Mechanical aids or team-lifting procedures are used.
The workplace policies and procedures of an organisation should be dependent on the type of work performed subject to discussion between employees and the employers who are required to carry out the work, as well as their representatives on health and safety issues.
Creating a safer workplace
Risk assessment and improvement form a process of constantly evaluating communication and updating of information. Once arrangements for managing WHS and workplace procedure are put into place, these must be reviewed regularly.
The process is ongoing. This can include events such as when new equipment is purchased, when new hazards arise, there is new staff or when there are other changes to the work environment, these must be discussed and dealt with.
A culture of safety would encourage training updates whenever individual workers or teams request it. All workers would then fully understand their responsibilities.
Ways in which you could contribute to health and safety practice in the workplace include:
➢ Reflecting on your own work and practice and those of others in the workplace in relation to managing WHS
➢ Considering the special needs of individuals or groups as appropriate
➢ Behaving in a safe manner and encouraging others to do so
➢ Exercising your rights and responsibilities as a worker.
As a worker, you should:
➢ Follow the instructions you have been given for workplace health and safety, e.g. manual handling, personal safety, and emergencies
➢ Help to constantly maintain a safe and healthy environment
➢ Assess hazards and reduce risks in all areas and locations you work in
➢ Help staff, clients, visitors and others to comply with health and safety standards.
Monitoring compliance
The following is an overall guide toward understanding how to use monitoring, its value as part of a compliance process and how to integrate it into working practice.
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Key areas to consider include:
➢ Objectives – At its most basic, compliance helps to ensure that a business activity is taking place and is working as intended – that the expected outcomes are occurring.
o identify, review and determine how to handle variations to the expected outcomes.
o identifies intentional deviations, such as when an employee differs from a defined procedure for their own benefit.
o improve the accuracy, efficiency and effectiveness of procedures as it identifies possible or actual failures in safe working practice.
➢ Timing – Monitoring compliance can occur before, during or after a working activity takes place.
o pre-activity monitoring includes: Management approval, such as for high risk activities, safety checks, log keeping, etc.
o during activity monitoring includes: Looking at complex procedures, ensuring accuracy of processes, ensuring safe working practice is maintained, etc.
o post activity monitoring includes: Queries about working practice, overview of less risky procedures.
➢ Scale – The amount of monitoring will vary. For the most sensitive or high risk activities, monitoring may involve each step in the procedure. Alternatively, it may act as a ‘spot check’ in looking only at randomly selected areas.
o can identify areas of high risk or areas with suspicion that compliance is not being followed.
o can monitor areas of interest, e.g. staff members or groups with higher numbers of accidents.
➢ Who performs the monitoring – Who conducts the monitoring can vary based on the activity’s sensitivity and staff’s requisite competence, including relevant skills and knowledge.
o lesser risk – Delegate monitoring to staff not directly involved in an activity, who then report back
o higher risk- Involve management or appropriate staff with expertise
o assign monitoring roles to people with the appropriate capabilities, objectivity and authority.
➢ Metrics – The monitor must be able to determine whether a practice meets, comes close to or fails to meet its goals, and the staff involved should be able to do the same.
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If there is a failure, the monitor needs to know the extent of the failure and, if possible, the reason why.
o metrics help the monitor to know whether an activity is improving when the metrics improve (or get worse). Even results that achieve but come close to missing objectives are useful, and monitoring of these metrics ensures that appropriate action can be taken.
➢ Outcomes – Monitoring helps management to affect changes when an activity does not meet or is at risk of not meeting its intended results.
o unaddressed failures or other deficiencies not only weaken a process, they also can create unexpected liability if regulators, authorities or others determine that the organisation did not take reasonable measures to achieve compliance.
o this means that the outcome of monitoring must be more than identifying actual or potential non-compliance; it must lead to management taking prompt action to address the risks involved in non-compliance.
o promoting that the results of monitoring will be reported also encourages organisations and staff to both monitor and make appropriate changes.
o a monitoring outcome also may include identifying changes to the underlying activity or external environment that may require changes to the working practice to ensure continued compliance.
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Activity 2A
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2.3 – Take prompt action to address non-compliance with procedures and safe work practices.
Addressing non compliance
The monitoring of your working practice will raise non-compliance issues that need to be addressed with prompt action.
Examples of reasons for non-compliance:
➢ Lack of time
➢ Perception that using PPE interferes with the ability to perform the job
➢ Physical discomfort/difficulty communicating when using equipment or performing work
➢ PPE not available when needed
➢ Lack of skills or knowledge in certain area.
To develop a disciplined workforce in your organisation, you may wish to consider some of the ideas below to help you address non-compliance.
Things to consider:
➢ Develop a compliance policy – Having a policy manual or handbook employees can refer to defines expected behaviour and gives them a reference to know when they have not met that behaviour so they know they are not being singled out, but their behaviour is
➢ Be consistent in enforcing non-compliance/disciplinary action – Everyone should be treated the same when enforcing rules, regulations and procedure
➢ Consider the type of action required – Actions to address non-compliance should be corrective, rather than punitive. The goal is to change behaviour, not punish people
➢ Consider the strength of action required – Progressive actions to address non-compliance might include informal talks, verbal counselling, written procedures (and warnings) or more severe disciplinary actions such as suspension or termination for severe reoffenders or dangerous situations. Actions should be progressive, with a series of steps of increasing severity
➢ Record non-compliance – Actions taken by and against staff should be recorded in employee files. This way repeat poor behaviour can be identified
➢ Have a complaints/grievances system – This helps address staff complaints and grievances. This not only reduces the number of non-compliance cases, but helps in reviewing the organisations procedures, but having a method of reply helps staff feel more fairly treated.
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Activity 2B
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2.4 – Monitor day-to-day effectiveness of WHS practices in maintaining the health, safety and security of personnel.
Monitoring effectiveness
Assessing effectiveness of WHS management practices may involve:
➢ Monitoring the ongoing effectiveness of risk control methods
➢ Self-monitoring
➢ Continuous monitoring
➢ Observations
➢ Assessments and checklists for procedures
➢ Reviewing:
o incidents or accidents, near misses
o work health and safety reports
o work health and safety statistics.
Factors involved in monitoring
What monitoring steps should be included and how they should be designed and conducted depend on various factors.
These factors could include:
➢ The frequency of the practice occurrence – The more often a practice occurs, the harder that monitoring the activity each time becomes.
➢ The cost of monitoring – Money, staffing and other resources.
➢ The ease of monitoring – For example, where management can employ technology to automate and expedite monitoring, this makes the overall process simpler.
➢ The risk of non-compliance – Both its seriousness and likelihood. Serious consequences of non-compliance may encourage pre-transaction approval and non-compliance that is more likely to occur can suggest a need for more monitoring of practice
➢ Motives for operating staff not to comply – Where staff may benefit from non-compliance (such as taking less time), it is the responsibility management to consider more strict monitoring.
Other factors may also be suitable depending on the practice to be monitored.
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Activity 2C
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3. Coordinate consultative arrangements for the management of health, safety and security issues.
3.1. Coordinate the operation of all consultative processes.
3.2. Provide opportunity for staff members to contribute their views on current and future WHS management practices.
3.3. Resolve or refer issues raised through WHS consultation to the appropriate person.
3.4. Provide timely staff and own feedback on WHS management practices to the designated person.
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3.1 – Coordinate the operation of all consultative processes.
Consultative processes
A good way of managing of helping to manage health, safety and security issues is through consultative arrangements and processes. This is because everyone involved in different areas can identify risks and hazards and raise them. This helps practical solutions to be found and implemented.
Consultative processes may involve:
➢ A diary, whiteboard or suggestion box used by staff to report issues of concern
➢ Fact sheets to fully inform personnel about work health and safety rights and responsibilities
➢ Formal WHS representatives and committees
➢ Formal meetings with agendas, minutes and action plans
➢ Informal meetings with notes
➢ Involving personnel in:
o conducting hazard identification and risk
assessment
o making decisions on how to eliminate or control risks
➢ Work health and safety discussions with employees during the course of each business day
➢ Recording issues in a management diary
➢ Regular staff meetings that involve work health and safety discussions
➢ Seeking staff suggestions for content of work health and safety policies and procedures
➢ Special staff meetings or workshops to specifically address work health and safety issues
➢ Staff handbook which includes work health and safety information
➢ Surveys or questionnaires that invite staff feedback on work health and safety issues.
Raising WHS issues
Managing and controlling WHS issues and safety hazards in the workplace is the ultimate responsibility of management but workers are involved in many ways.
It is the responsibility of staff members to participate in workplace health and safety and contribute their views within the scope of your abilities and role.
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Staff members are expected to follow instructions, identify and raise safety hazards relating to workplace health and safety.
This can include aspects of:
➢ Induction programs
➢ Training programs
➢ Hazard and incident reporting
➢ Equipment maintenance
➢ Job procedures
➢ Work instructions
➢ Waste management
➢ Security
➢ Personal protective equipment (PPE).
The Workplace Health and Safety laws introduced in 2011 and other related legislation are provided to ensure that workers and others do not suffer avoidable injury, harm and illness during the course of their work.
Under this legislation, every employer, worker, visitor or other stakeholder in the workplace has an obligation to ensure a healthy and safe environment. Part of this obligation includes providing information, training and supervision to workers and others who will be in the workplace as well as providing methods for reporting hazards and incidents that impact on workplace health and safety.
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Activity 3A
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3.2 – Provide opportunity for staff members to contribute their views on current and future WHS management practices.
WHS consultation processes
Consultation with staff is important for a number of reasons. In addition to being required by law, it is also a useful method of improving the organisation’s knowledge regarding health and safety matters. To ensure that consultation occurs, your organisation should have relevant opportunities and procedures that are well established to contribute their views.
Things to consider for contributing views include:
➢ Ensure consultation takes place during a suitable time within normal work hours.
➢ Ensure views are allowed to be expressed during workplace meetings.
➢ Provide different methods for staff to contribute feedback.
Consulting with designated personnel
Part of your responsibilities is to provide opportunities for staff members to contribute their views on WHS management practices with appropriate people identified under workplace procedures and legislative requirements. Under Workplace Health and Safety legislation, there are paths that suggest how staff members can consult and report on issues.
These include:
➢ Workplace Health and Safety Officers (WHSO)
➢ Workplace Health and Safety Representatives (WHSR)
➢ Workplace Health and Safety Committees (WHSC)
Workplace procedures for raising WHS issues can vary depending on many factors, such as industry type and organisation structure. In a small workplace, consultation may be more informal but should still take place. There may not be a need for a health and safety representative or committee, and the obligation to identify hazards and manage risk usually falls to the manager, coordinator or supervisor. Workplace health and safety as a standing agenda item at all staff meetings is one method through which consultation continues and health and safety issues are addressed.
Workplace Health and Safety Officers
In workplaces with thirty or more workers, a specially qualified Workplace Health and Safety Officer (WHSO) should be appointed to provide advice about all health and safety issues within the workplace.
WHS Officer responsibilities include:
➢ Carrying out inspections and audits
➢ Setting up training and educational programs about workplace health and safety
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➢ Helping to investigate all workplace incidents
➢ Conducting annual workplace assessments
➢ Consulting with Workplace Health and Safety Representatives.
Workplace Health and Safety Representatives
A Workplace Health and Safety Representative (WHSR) is someone elected by other workers to liaise with management on health and safety issues and advocate on behalf of the employees.
The representative does not need any experience or special qualifications, but may undertake training to help them perform the role. The WHSR have a great opportunity to influence health and safety in the workplace. WHSR cannot be directly selected by employees but they can suggest that workers elect one.
Employers can influence the role of the WHSR in relation to:
➢ Number of representatives for the workplace
➢ Number and frequency inspections conducted by the WHSR
➢ WHSR training
➢ WHSR elections
Employers have responsibilities to:
➢ Consult WHSR in regards to changes to the workplace that may affect health and safety
➢ Allow WHSR to make inspections – The WHSR can observe issues in your workplace. When they are inspecting aspects relating to tasks they can be consulted with and discuss any issues including previous issues and how they are being addressed.
➢ Inform the WHSR of any workplace incidents and allow them to look circumstances surrounding any incidents – Incidents are often an indication of hazards or problems at the workplace so having WHSR can be beneficial
➢ Support WHSR training – Training for the WHSR will make them better informed and do a better job of managing WHS issues.
WHSR have responsibilities to:
➢ Help to resolve any issues in regards to health and safety in the workplace
➢ Report any issues they are aware of in the workplace
➢ Advise the employer of the results and recommendations workplace incident reviews
➢ Consult with employers and receive cooperation in solving any issues
➢ Request the establishment of a workplace health and safety committee if required
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➢ Promote the reporting of WHS hazards and issues with workers and seek their help in assessing and controlling risks.
Workplace Health and Safety Committees
Workplace Health and Safety Committees promote a cooperative relationship between employers and workers and are a great way to address health and safety issues in the workplace. Under WHS legislation, an employer may establish a workplace health and safety committee if they wish, but must do so if the WHS Representative requests so.
A committee must consist of at least two members. In the spirit of cooperation at least half the committee members must be workers who have not been nominated by the employer.
Responsibilities of a workplace health and safety committee may include:
➢ Providing the employer with WHS advice and information
➢ Promoting and maintaining interest in health and safety in the workplace
➢ Informing workers about instructions and procedures on workplace health and safety
➢ Looking at circumstances surrounding workplace incidents that need review
➢ Helping resolve health and safety issues at the workplace.
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Activity 3B
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3.3 – Resolve or refer issues raised through WHS consultation to the appropriate person.
Raising issues
When an issue is raised by an employee or health and safety representative, it must be dealt with appropriately. There should be every attempt to resolve the issue in a reasonable and timely way.
When raising issues:
➢ You may need to investigate the issue further and ask other workers if they are experiencing similar problems.
➢ Contact appropriate staff to promote awareness of the issue.
➢ You should keep employees updated with the progress of your investigation into the issue.
➢ Communicate any possible options and encourage input from workers.
➢ Inform workers and representatives of your final decision (with reasons) and what this means for them e.g. a change in practices, equipment etc.
Resolving issues
When resolving issues:
➢ Decide what the problem you are trying to solve is.
➢ Develop a plan -You need to work out how you are going to resolve the issue. Think of all the possible strategies for identifying what causes the issue and how it can be resolved.
➢ Choose a strategy – Review all the strategies you thought of and decide which will be most effective.
➢ Put your plan into action – This step involves implementation of all the steps necessary to carry out your plan.
➢ Monitor the effectiveness of the solution – Make sure that it actually solved the issue. During this stage of the process, ask yourself the following questions:
o how effective is the solution?
o did it achieve what I wanted?
o what consequences did it have?
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Referring issues
When deciding to refer issues:
➢ Schedule a meeting for a time in the future when there has had sufficient time to implement the changes or resolve the issues that came about as a result of WHS consultation.
➢ This meeting could be with management, supervisors or other persons involved in the area.
➢ At this meeting raise the issue and any attempted resolution, plus possible steps to be taken.
➢ If the issue is not progressing as anticipated, the meeting can help provide strategies to reinvigorate the process or seek advice. It can also be an opportunity to discuss new possibilities for consultation and development.
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Activity 3C
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3.4 – Provide timely staff and own feedback on WHS management practices to the designated person.
Provide accessible information on outcomes
Information about the outcomes of participation and consultation on WHS matters needs to be communicated to workers. You will need to ensure that this information is communicated in a way that is accessible to everyone.
Providing information on consultations may include providing:
➢ Minutes from WHS committee meetings.
➢ Minutes from group meetings.
➢ Flyers.
You may need to provide information through a variety of different means. For example:
➢ Email notification
➢ Noticeboards
➢ Meetings
➢ Website e.g. articles or factsheets
➢ Newsletters.
Using a variety of methods to distribute outcomes to workers ensures that they will not only more likely to see the information, but also be reminded of it, helping the implementation of any changes.
You should be aware of the differing language skills of your workers and choose communication methods that are appropriate to meet all needs.
Features of good feedback
➢ Observe behaviour – Concentrate on the behaviour. Why is it wrong for the organisation, team, individuals, etc.; not why you personally dislike it. Your judgment needs to come from a professional opinion, not a personal one.
o concentrate on pointing out the exact cause of poor performance. If you cannot determine an exact cause, then it is probably subjective and should be ignored.
➢ Treat others as you would want to be treated – Before giving the feedback, frame the feedback within your mind.
o it might help to ask yourself, “how would I like to be corrected?”
o what tones and gestures would best communicate your message? Remember, you want the recipient to consider your message. If you are aggressive or passive in what you say, they might be dismissive of it.
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Of course, being non-judgemental does not mean that you have to agree or not say what you think. At times it will be important to challenge staff or offer constructive feedback. When giving feedback, be constructive and positive.
Consider the BOOST model, which says that feedback should be:
➢ Balanced – Focus on strengths as well as on what needs improvement.
➢ Observed – Provide feedback based only on behaviours you have observed.
➢ Objective – Focusing on facts reduces blame and defensive reactions and encourages cooperation.
➢ Specific – Back up your comments with specific examples of observed behaviour.
➢ Timely – Give feedback soon after the activity. This gives the person a chance to reflect on what they have learned.
Correcting behaviour
When you are correcting behaviour:
➢ The individual must first recognise the nature of the problem in order to get to a point where they can correct it.
➢ Telling someone there is a problem is not necessarily enough. Find out what they know about the problem. For example. “What do you think the problem is?”
➢ Wait for the answer. Do not supply the answer. This is intended to help you increase the awareness of the person through questions – not answers.
➢ Practice active listening – This requires that
you suspend your judgment and your answers and be intent on understanding
➢ If needed, help them see what they can’t see themselves by making a suggestion, without any attachment as to what is really going on.
➢ Clarify the suggestions and details as required to help them to gain perspective.
➢ Reframe the situation – Reframing is the skill of reinterpreting the way the person is looking at something and putting it in a different way. Reframing helps people sees the situation from a different perspective from what they would on their own.
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Activity 3D
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4. Implement and monitor procedures for identifying hazards, and assessing and controlling risks
4.1. Coordinate scheduled hazard identification activities, ensuring hazards are identified at times designated by legislation.
4.2. Identify any hazards on an ongoing basis during own day-to-day workplace operations.
4.3. React to reports of hazards by other workers, and coordinate and participate in risk assessments.
4.4. Implement any risk control methods or refer to appropriate person if control is outside scope of responsibility.
4.5. Monitor effectiveness of control measures, promptly identify any inadequacies, and resolve or report them to the appropriate person.
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4.1 – Coordinate scheduled hazard identification activities, ensuring hazards are identified at times designated by legislation.
Hazard identification and risk assessment
A good way to coordinate hazard identification activities is to encourage use of template documents in order to identify hazards, such as checklists and reports.
Hazard identification and risk assessment template documents may include:
➢ Self-designed tools developed for the organisation as part of a work health and safety management system
➢ Checklists
➢ Tools and templates developed:
o by external consultancy services
o by industry associations for use of member businesses
o for public use by, and found within, business management publications, including those developed by work health and safety government regulators.
These can be lengthened by adding more potential hazards. They would be good to use as part of an inspection of general hazards in the workplace.
If a member of staff finds a hazard they may then need to complete an identification form.
A hazard identification form would include information on:
➢ The identification of the hazard – e.g. what the hazard is and why it is a hazard.
➢ The assessment of the hazard – e.g. its potential consequences and the severity of those
➢ The control measures that need to be introduced – e.g. the short term and long term actions.
Another example may be a job safety sheet.
Job safety sheets include:
➢ The date of the report
➢ Location or department
➢ A reference
➢ What is being assessed?
➢ Who is assessing it/found the hazard?
➢ Manager or supervisor of the department signature.
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A job safety sheet allows for steps to be taken to control the risks encountered performing duties and responsibilities in your day to day role.
Assessment criteria may include those:
➢ Determined by legislation
➢ Developed by external consultancy services
➢ Outlined in Australian standards
➢ Self-determined for the organisation as part of a work health and safety management system
➢ Suggested by industry associations for use by member businesses.
Types of hazards
There are many types of hazards that exist in every workplace. Some are easily identified and corrected, while others may be more difficult to identify or correct. Hazards can cause dangerous situations that can cause serious harm or affect your long-term health. By identifying and reporting hazards in your workplace you can help to reduce harm.
There are many types of workplace hazards, including:
➢ Physical hazards – Arguably the most common type of hazard, and many can be easily corrected. E.g. Frayed electrical cords, loose wires, unguarded machinery, exposed moving parts, constant loud noise, vibrations, scaffolding or heights, spills, tripping hazards.
➢ Ergonomic hazards – Hazards that occur because of your working conditions and strain on your body. Many of these hazards can be unseen in that they don’t affect your health immediately, but in the long term. E.g. Poor lighting, frequent, heavy or improper lifting, repetitive or awkward movements, incorrectly adjusted workstations
and chairs.
➢ Chemical hazards – Hazards that come from working with chemicals. E.g. Cleaning products and solvents, vapours and fumes, carbon monoxide or other gases, gasoline or other flammable materials.
➢ Biological hazards – Hazards that come from working with people, animals or other infectious materials. E.g. blood or other bodily fluids, bacteria and viruses, insect bites, animal and bird droppings.
Hazards can come from:
➢ Physical environment, for example: Electrical items, equipment, flooring, hot and cold environments, lighting, noise levels, working space of any workers
➢ Plant, for example – Appliances, equipment, machinery and tools
➢ Working practices, for example – Length of time spent at certain tasks and allocation of breaks, opening and closing procedures, rostering of staff and shift allocation, security procedures, standard operating procedures for work related tasks.
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Activity 4A
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4.2 – Identify any hazards on an ongoing basis during own day-to-day workplace operations.
Working safely
As an employee you are required by law to take responsibility for your safety in the workplace as well as reporting any concerns. This means you always need to think about your personal safety no matter what tasks you are performing.
No matter which industry you work in, you’ll be bound by a set of government, industry and workplace safety policies and procedures. These rules can cover everything from how you go about reporting hazards, to safe use of specific tools, equipment and chemicals.
Workplace Health and Safety (WHS) legislation replaced Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) legislation in 2011.
WHS legislation stipulates that employers must provide their staff with:
➢ “ Safe premises
➢ Safe machinery and materials
➢ Protective clothing and equipment
➢ Safe systems of work
➢ Information, instruction, training and supervision
➢ A suitable working environment and facilities.”
Identifying hazards
Identifying hazards involves finding all of the objects, tasks and situations that could potentially cause harm to people.
Hazards can come from areas including:
➢ The physical work environment
➢ Equipment, materials and substances used
➢ How work tasks are performed
➢ Design and management of work.
You can identify hazards by:
➢ Inspecting the workplace – Observe the performance of work tasks
➢ Consulting workers- Talk about any health and safety issues they have encountered
➢ Analysing your records – Workplace incidents, near misses and worker complaints that are recorded can demonstrate patterns and highlight areas of interest
➢ Reviewing information and advice – Hazards and risks relevant to your particular industry or the type of work that you do such as information provided by industry associations, manufacturers or suppliers.
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Time requirements
Most organisational policies and procedures, as well as WHS legislation, will specify how long it should take to identify hazards. For instance, ‘staff members should spend half an hour conducting workplace hazard inspections at the start and end of the day.’
These time requirements, however, will depend on a range of factors, including the nature of work conducted in the workplace, the potential for risk, the number of people conducting the inspection, and many other factors besides.
Time requirements for hazard identification also alter:
➢ When changes to the workplace are implemented:
o before the premises are used for the first time
o before and during the installation or alteration of any plant
o before changes to work practices are introduced
➢ When any new information relating to health and safety risks becomes available.
You should always take the time to identify your organisation’s time requirements for hazard identification. Otherwise, you may put yourself, your colleagues and any other persons at serious risk.
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Activity 4B
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4.3 – React to reports of hazards by other workers, and coordinate and participate in risk assessments.
Assess risks
Risk assessments should be performed when:
➢ There is uncertainty about how a hazard may result in injury or illness
➢ There are a range of different hazards involved in the work activity and it is not fully understood how the hazards may interact with each other to produce new or greater risks
➢ There have been changes at the workplace occur that may impact on the effectiveness of control measures.
➢ When any new information relating to health and safety risks becomes available
➢ A risk assessment is mandatory under the Work Health and Safety Regulations 2012 (the WHS Regulations) for high risk activities, such as entry into confined spaces, diving work and live electrical work.
Performing risk assessments involves considering:
➢ How severe the potential harm caused by the hazard could be, including:
o what type of harm could occur? e.g. Muscular strain, fatigue, burns, chemical exposure
o what category of harm could occur? E.g. Death, serious injury or illness, or only minor injury
o how many people are at risk of exposure to the hazard?
➢ How hazards may cause harm, including:
o the effectiveness of currently existing control measures – Do they account for all types of harm
o how work is actually done – Are written manuals and procedures followed? Are they fit for purpose?
o the likelihood of infrequent or abnormal situations – Are people prepared in comparison to how things are normally meant to occur?
o maintenance and cleaning processes, as well as breakdowns of equipment and failures of health and safety controls.
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➢ The likelihood of harm occurring, including:
o how frequently the task is performed
o how frequently people are near the hazard
o if harm has happened before – Either in your workplace or somewhere else, and how frequently.
The level of risk will increase as the likelihood of harm and its severity increases.
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4.4 – Implement any risk control methods or refer to appropriate person if control is outside scope of responsibility.
Control risks
The hierarchy of risk control is a way of showing how to control risks. Methods are ranked from the highest level of protection and reliability to the lowest.
You must work through the hierarchy of control in order and implement risk controls higher in the order when possible.
The hierarchy of control is:
➢ Eliminate – Complete removal of the hazard from the workplace e.g. Removing trip hazards on the floor or disposing of unwanted chemicals. This is the most effective control measure and must always be considered before anything else.
➢ Substitute – Substitute or replace the hazard with a less hazardous work practice e.g. replace solvent-based paints with water-based paints.
➢ Isolate – Separate the hazard or hazardous work practice from people by distance or using barriers as much as possible e.g. Placing guards around moving parts of machinery.
➢ Engineering controls – Physical control measures e.g. using a trolley to lift heavy loads.
➢ Administrative controls – Work methods or procedures that are designed to minimise the exposure to a hazard e.g. Developing a procedure on how to operate machinery safely or use signs to warn people of a hazard.
➢ Personal protective equipment (PPE) – PPE, such as ear muffs, hard hats, gloves and protective eyewear, relies on the proper fit and use of the PPE to control risk, but does nothing to change the hazard itself.
It is likely a combination of control measures may need to be implemented to provide the highest level of protection that is satisfactory at controlling risks. When selecting and implementing a combination of control measures it is important to consider whether any new risks might be introduced as a consequence.
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Reporting hazards
Many potential hazards are dealt with simply by keeping your work area clean and tidy. This can be as simple as putting things away, cleaning up spills as they happen, making sure leads and cables are not across walkways.
When you see anything that might cause harm, injury or illness or potentially cause disruptions, report it to your supervisor immediately. Keen observation and reporting are a good way to deal with such hazards.
For example, if you notice any damaged or faulty equipment, report it to your supervisor so a tag can be placed on the item. Never put yourself or others at risk by trying to fix faults. If you see a piece of equipment with a tag, do not attempt to use it.
Hazards that are harder to eliminate or minimise may require the help and cooperation of other workers and management.
Your workplace may have a system for reporting hazards such as:
➢ Reporting hazards to your supervisor or a designated WHS person
➢ Completing a Hazard Report form
➢ Consulting your Workplace Health and Safety Officer or Representative on the issue
➢ Bringing the issue up at a safety meeting or a staff meeting.
The manner of reporting a hazard will often depend on the level of risk involved:
➢ High risk – Immediate danger that must be urgently dealt with.
➢ Medium risk – Potential danger that must be dealt with as soon as possible. Needs follow up.
➢ Low risk – Does not threaten immediate danger but should be noted, monitored and dealt with in the future.
High risk or acute hazards should always be reported immediately to a supervisor, delegated Workplace Health and Safety officer or representative.
Hazards that are less acute may require completion of a Hazard Report form and forwarding it to the appropriate person.
There may also be specific procedures for emergency situations. These are usually specified in an emergency procedures manual, as well as being covered in your workplace induction.
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Hazard report forms
Hazard report forms are a common way of reporting hazards. The completed forms help ensure that reports are kept of hazards and track any actions done.
Information kept on a hazard report form includes:
➢ The type and location of the hazard
➢ Who it was reported to
➢ What action was taken
➢ Whether the hazard has been removed or reduced.
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Activity 4D
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4.5 – Monitor effectiveness of control measures, promptly identify any inadequacies, and resolve or report them to the appropriate person.
Review control measures
Monitoring and improving workplace health and safety needs to be an ongoing task. Safety processes and operations evolve with time and staff changes alter the risks and mitigations for everyone in the workplace. Having established your WHS management system you should regularly review and monitor how effective it is, as well as make any necessary adjustments to keep it up-to-date.
Control measures that have been implemented must be reviewed, and if necessary, revised to make sure they work as planned.
Situations when you should review your control measures include:
➢ When the control measure is not effective in controlling the risk, e.g. when an incident occurs.
➢ Before a change at the workplace that is likely to give rise to a new or different health and safety risk that the control measure may not effectively control.
➢ When any new information relating to health and safety risks becomes available.
➢ When a new hazard or risk is identified.
➢ If the results of consultation indicate that a review is necessary.
➢ If a Health and Safety Representative requests a review.
Control measures may be reviewed using the same methods as the initial hazard identification steps.
Appropriate persons
It is important to be able to identify who the WHS duty holders are within your organisation. Staff should know who to contact about their queries and concerns.
Nominated persons may include:
➢ Health and safety officers
➢ Health and safety representatives
➢ Managers and supervisors
➢ Other persons authorised or nominated by the organisation
➢ PCBUs or their officers
➢ Team leaders
➢ Union officers
➢ WHS inspectors
➢ WHS permit entry holders.
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Once your concerns have been reported, the designated person is then responsible for acting on this and making sure the workplace is a safe environment. Your employer has a legal responsibility to ensure the workplace is safe and nobody is at risk.
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5. Implement and monitor health, safety and security training.
5.1. Identify WHS training needs based on regular staff monitoring.
5.2. Make arrangements for fulfilling training needs.
5.3. Monitor effectiveness of training and make required adjustments.
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5.1 – Identify WHS training needs based on regular staff monitoring.
Identify WHS training
There is a legal requirement to provide training in workplace health and safety, in order to assist in achieving the duty of care for the health, safety and welfare of employees.
This is contained in the Workplace Health and Safety (WHS) legislation in Australia. There are also specific safety training requirements, which are prescribed in specific regulation provisions.
These include training requirements such as:
➢ First aid training
➢ Safety committee training (if you have one)
➢ Safety representative training (if you have one)
➢ Forklift driver training
➢ Crane operator training
➢ Return to work coordinator training
➢ Construction induction training
➢ Manual handling training
➢ Confined space entry training
➢ Hazardous substances training if you handle chemicals in the workplace and many others.
Other than training requirements, there may be other aspects which you will need to train your staff on, such as your emergency evacuation procedures, using machine guarding, operation of machinery and tools, general safety induction, workstation ergonomic training, chemical awareness, risk assessments, and incident investigation.
What should be included in training will depend on your specific organisational requirements and legislation as it applies to your organisation and roles within it. There are a number of ways to identify WHS training needs relevant to the job.
Methods to identify WHS training needs include:
➢ A training matrix (identifies WHS skills required for employees and their respective job position)
➢ Job safety analyses (includes training and competency for each task)
➢ Specific hazard risk assessments (e.g. manual handling-safe lifting technique training)
➢ WHS audits
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➢ Observation of working practice
➢ Legislation requirements (e.g. plant operator certification)
➢ Investigation of incidents.
There may be a need for training because of a range of factors, including:
➢ Skills or knowledge – The individual does not know how to perform the process correctly – lack of skills, knowledge, or abilities.
➢ Process – The problem is not related to the individual, but is caused by working conditions, improper procedures, etc.
➢ Resources – Lack of resources, such as equipment or technology.
➢ Motivation or business culture – The individual knows how to perform, but does not do so – this can be for a variety of reasons.
Training needs analysis
A Training Needs Analysis (TNA) is a survey that will help you to identify the WHS training needed in your organisation. The answers provided will assist you to plan training.
The following steps will help you in conducting a TNA:
➢ Create a survey – A questionnaire with check list format, that requires yes/no answers is simple but effective.
➢ Cover topics such as safety rules, processes for reporting hazards, use of PPE, fire and evacuation procedures, major hazards of the workplace etc.
➢ Distribute surveys to staff and ask them to complete.
➢ Compile the checklists and record the number of staff who have training or knowledge on particular areas.
➢ Record the total findings.
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Activity 5A
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5.2 – Make arrangements for fulfilling training needs.
Arranging and fulfilling training needs
Fulfilling training needs means helping people to learn how to do something, telling people what they should or should not do, or simply giving them information. Training isn’t just about formal ‘classroom’ courses, but providing methods for which they can learn everything they need to perform their job role safely and effectively.
Arranging WHS training helps you to:
➢ Ensure that people who work for you know how to work safely and without risks to health.
➢ Develop a positive health and safety culture, where safe and healthy working becomes second nature to everyone.
➢ Meet your legal duty to protect the health and safety of your employees.
Fulfilling training needs:
➢ Will contribute towards making your employees competent in health and safety.
➢ Can help your business avoid the distress that accidents and ill health cause.
➢ Can improve staff efficiency, confidence and happiness.
➢ Can help you avoid the financial costs of accidents and workplace ill health, such as damaged products, lost production and demotivated staff.
Safety training needs should follow careful consideration of processes, activities, hazards and risks and include your WHS consultative mechanisms (such as WHS committee) in discussions.
Steps to arrange training:
➢ Create a plan to cover all the training needs in your workplace.
➢ Work out what the aims of the training are and over what timescale.
➢ Plan what sort of training would be most appropriate, and so who should be responsible for implementation.
➢ Plan how you will monitor and review the effectiveness of the training.
➢ Plan for the specific needs of your workforce, such as language and literacy needs by utilising interpreters, translated information, multilingual signs, literacy training or appropriate methods where necessary.
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Methods of training
WHS training can use various methods, such as:
➢ Group or individual exercises.
➢ Explanations and demonstrations.
➢ Role-playing.
➢ Case studies.
An organisation’s WHS training program should involve developing skills to enable all in the workplace to carry out their health and safety responsibilities.
WHS training does not just involve specific hazard training; WHS is part of all workplace training, just as WHS is an important part of ongoing management.
Health and safety training could include:
➢ Induction training
➢ Supervisor and management training
➢ On-the-job training
➢ Specific hazard training
➢ Work procedures and skills training
➢ Emergency procedure training
➢ First aid training.
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5.3 – Monitor effectiveness of training and make required adjustments.
Monitoring the effectiveness of training
Monitoring training is essential in ensuring that your training programme is having the desired effects. It allows you to note if your training programme needs to be adapted in any way in order to keep it working effectively.
The monitoring stage of training involves checking to confirm the learner is able to apply their new skills and knowledge in their day-to-day work. It is the results of monitoring that will determine whether the training process is complete or not. Monitoring is also an opportunity to provide the employee with ongoing support and, if necessary, to recommend further training.
Monitoring can take many forms, including:
➢ Assessment tools – used by the employer, the individual themselves, etc.
➢ Checklists – Can be completed by supervisor, manager or the employee themselves.
➢ Observing learners in real work situations.
➢ Recording changes in results – e.g. Sales figures, jobs completed.
➢ Collecting feedback on performance –
E.g. Customer satisfaction surveys, consulting with colleagues.
To ensure the overall picture of skill development is accurate, you should use a variety of monitoring techniques. Be sure to consider variables that may impact on the employee’s performance, including illness, anxiety and distractions.
When monitoring, aim to be:
➢ Objective
➢ Accurate
➢ Understanding
➢ Consistent
➢ Relevant
➢ Up-to-date
➢ Effective.
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The teacher must remember that individuals come to training with different experiences and expectations and as such, no two people learn in the same way. As a result, one learner may grasp a concept or pick up a skill quite quickly, whereas another may struggle or take longer.
This necessitates the teacher being patient and understanding, flexible in their delivery, encouraging in their support and objective when monitoring.
Making adjustments
Monitoring the progress of workplace skills isn’t just used for evaluation. You can provide assistance based on your methods of monitoring.
When discussing assistance, consider if the individual:
➢ Requires critical information and facts
➢ Wants to know your opinion or has potentially valuable input
➢ Needs help in finding a solution to a problem
➢ Wants input on reasoning or processing for a task.
How to provide assistance
There is never a perfect method to provide assistance to individuals as their skills and knowledge on a given task, as well as yours, is variable and everyone responds to help and assistance in different ways.
That being said, there are a number of strategies for questioning you can use to help provide assistance.
Consider discussing:
➢ What the aims are
➢ What has happened since the training occurred
➢ How they think things are progressing currently
➢ What they want to talk about
➢ What they want to happen
➢ How they judge success.
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Activity 5C
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6. Maintain WHS records and reports.
6.1. Complete WHS records and reports accurately and legibly and store according to organisational and legal requirements.
6.2. Use data and reports to provide reliable and timely input into the management of workplace health, safety and security.
6.3. Minimise use of printed materials and maximise electronic transmission and filing of all documents to reduce waste.
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6.1 – Complete WHS records and reports accurately and legibly and store according to organisational and legal requirements.
6.2 – Use data and reports to provide reliable and timely input into the management of workplace health, safety and security.
WHS records
WHS records provide evidence of complying with mandatory regulations and standards and demonstrate that the organisation’s management of WHS is proper and fit for purpose.
WHS records and data include but are not limited to completed copies of forms, checklists and risk assessments contained in the WHS management system. Additionally, WHS records may include externally produced documentation such as but not limited to material safety data sheets, external WHS audit reports, health surveillance records or workplace monitoring reports.
WHS records include, but are not limited to:
➢ Hazard reports
➢ Incident reports
➢ Risk assessments
➢ Procedures for different types of work
➢ Audit reports
➢ Workplace inspections
➢ WHS meeting minutes, such as from committees and representatives
➢ Emergency evacuation reports
➢ Health monitoring reports
➢ Inspection testing and monitoring reports
➢ Equipment maintenance records
➢ Induction and training records
➢ Safety data sheets
➢ Hazchem information
➢ Records relating to chemical use, such as spray records and storage
➢ Plant or biological organisms registers
➢ Consultation:
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o diaries of meetings
o agendas for and minutes of meetings
o committee members
o consultation decisions and follow-up actions
➢ Training plans
➢ Training undertaken.
Protocols are in place so that information is professional, consistent and easy to understand. You may have or need to establish templates for certain documents e.g. incident report form.
Managing computer directories
A computer directory is a computer based filing system that is organised into files and folders on a computer.
To manage this filing system you may need to:
➢ Create new folders
➢ Copy folders or files within folders and move to other locations
➢ Change the name of a file or folder
➢ Delete files and folders.
Workplace procedures for storing records
Your workplace requirements for storing WHS records will vary. Typically, WHS records should be sorted using a method appropriate to their type and using any appropriate security arrangements that might apply. Example methods could include sorting by type of record, date of record and sequential numbering, amongst others. Records should be assigned a unique identifier so they can be searched for and identified.
Regardless of the method chosen for storing records, it should be such that retrieval of the record is easy and obvious. WHS records which could contain confidential information should be filed in a way which prohibits unauthorised access. The WHS records register should indicate any such record.
Ensuring accuracy
As supervisors are expected to understand how to complete the necessary WHS records, they may also be responsible for reviewing records (their own or others) to ensure they are accurate and thorough.
This may involve checking that:
➢ The correct form or record has been completed
➢ Any forms are completed fully and signed
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➢ The information is accurate in terms of content, spelling and grammar (especially the spelling of people’s names, and that dates and times are correct)
➢ Any attachments have been completed correctly and are attached
➢ Records are completed within specified time lines (usually as soon as possible after an incident) and forwarded to the relevant person or agency.
Collection, indexing and filing
Every organisation will have its own procedures for the completion and storage of WHS records, but we will discuss some likely aspects.
WHS records should be filed and arranged in a convenient order for storage or reference. Filing or records is based on file type such as hard copy or electronic media and must be filed in a state which is secured to prevent unauthorised access. Files must be indexed to minimise loss and enable easy retrieval.
A procedure should be established to handle any requests for access to such records and appropriate approvals sought and received in advance
The storage and maintenance of WHS records should be as outlined in the WHS records register i.e. detailing the location, responsible person and retention period etc. According to WHS legislation, records will be archived and stored for a minimum period of seven years.
Benefits of data and reports
WHS reports can be very useful tools for recording information about WHS that can be used in a variety of ways to help manage health, safety and security.
Such examples include:
➢ Identify trends for unsafe conditions or work practices – So you can take steps to correct these potential hazards
➢ Provide material for education and training
➢ Provide documentation – In case it is requested or if an incident occurs and you need to prove that you did all you could reasonably do to prevent it.
➢ Future development – Records can serve to identify future needs for individuals, departments and the organisation as a whole
➢ Reference for employees – WHS records demonstrates a commitment to safer workplace
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Activity 6A
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6.3 – Minimise use of printed materials and maximise electronic transmission and filing of all documents to reduce waste.
Reducing waste
Minimising waste in the workplace allows you to reduce operating costs while helping preserve the environment. Efforts to reduce waste don’t need to be costly or time-consuming to implement. Simple steps and strategies for reusing, repurposing and recycling can benefit you and the environment in a variety of ways.
Simple steps and strategies include:
➢ Only print materials when complete necessary
➢ Printing on both sides of a piece of paper cuts the cost of paper in half
➢ Sending correspondence via email instead of postal mail reduces the cost of paper and postage
➢ Using ceramic coffee cups and dishes in the break room in place of paper cups and plates saves money as well as trees.
➢ Use scrap paper to take notes
➢ Minimise misprints by posting a diagram on how to load special paper like letterheads so they are printed correctly.
➢ Shred used paper and use it as packing material
➢ Use old boxes to store documents
➢ Practice efficient copying— use the size reduction feature offered on many copiers. Two pages of a book or other item can often be copied onto one standard sheet.
➢ Use two-way or send-and-return envelopes. Your outgoing envelope will be reused for its return trip.
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Activity 6B
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Summative Assessments
At the end of your Learner Workbook, you will find the Summative Assessments.
This includes:
➢ Skills assessment
➢ Knowledge assessment
➢ Performance assessment.
This holistically assesses your understanding and application of the skills, knowledge and performance requirements for this unit. Once this is completed, you will have finished this unit and be ready to move onto the next one – well done!
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