for charandry only

“comment on these student posts- paragraph each
Student 1 Stacia
The brain
The brain develops at an unbelievable rate from infancy into the toddler age.  The brain consists of microscopic brain cells and the cerebral cortex.  The cerebral cortex is the most complex brain structure.  It is responsible for our intelligence.  Within the brain are neurons that store and transmit information.Â
Growth of infant brain.
During the prenatal period, neurons are produced in the embryo’s neural tube.  They then move to form other parts of the brain.  They eventually form fibers and synaptic connections with other cells.  In infancy and toddlerhood, the neural fibers increase tremendously.  The neurons are stimulated from input and form communication systems that support complex abilities.  The stimulation results in synapses that ensure children obtain motor, cognitive, and social skills.  A child’s brain needs to be appropriately stimulated during the formation of synapses.
Physical growth.
Different parts of the body grow at different rates.  The cephalocaudal trend and the proximodistal trend.  The cephalocaudal trend is when the head develops more quickly than the lower half of the body.  At birth, the head is most of a child’s body length.  The rest of the body eventually catches up.  The proximodistal trend is defined as growth from the center of the body and out.  In infancy and early childhood, arms and legs grow ahead of hands and feet.Â
Brain Plasticity.
Plasticity is a basic property of the nervous system.  Synaptic connections support brain plasticity.  Within the first years of life, the brain is very plastic.  This means than it is able to reorganize, something that mature brain cannot do as well.  Essentially, brain injury after this time is less likely to yield improvements but with it is possible with practicing relevant tasks.Â
Experience-expectant versus experience-dependent brain growth.
Experience-expectant brain growth is the young brains developing organization that depends on ordinary experiences and opportunities to explore the environment, interact with people, and to hear sounds.  The brains of all young children “expect” to encounter experiences and grow.  Experience-dependent brain growth happens throughout life and the refinement of existing brain structures from learning experiences. Â
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Student 2 Lisa
To new parents having a new baby can bring a lot of worries about everything regarding health and development. Brain development is one of the major concerns when it comes to the baby. The brain is one of the most important parts of the body and as a baby it continues to develop. At the beginning of the infancy the neural fibers and synapses increase rapidly as they grow (Berk, Meyers, 2015-03-01). This just means that all the parts of the brain are doing everything it needs to do and growing the way it should. If this is happening in the brain then the baby will grow and develop by all the milestones.Â
Each successful milestone shows that the brain is developing in the correct way between the first two years. This can also result in the physical growth of an infant. The healthy environment in which some infants live can also be beneficial to their growth. Providing a positive environment and a healthy nutritional diet will keep the brain and body growing. If a child is being fed a proper diet the brain, heart, digestive system and internal organs will develop appropriately.(Berk, Meyers, 2015-03-01)Â
Also having a healthy environment can protect infants from any injuries to the brain. Due to infants having brain plasticity from birth they can experience injuries to the cerebral cortex. This can affect the development of the brain causing language delays, spatial skills, early brain seizures and/or hemorrhages (Berk, Meyers, 2015-03-01). Understanding experience-expectant brain growth describes an experience or a normal environment that occurs in the normal and generalized where neurons connections. The experience-dependent brain growth is a continued process of its creation and organization of neuron connections. These are all a part of an infant’s brain development. Knowing this information can help to understand how the brain is a part of an infant’s development through the first two years.
Student post Stacia
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Early language development.
The nativist theory focuses on grammar and proposes that all children have an innate system that allows them to speak and understand languages they hear.  This theory suggests that this happens as soon as children pick up enough words.  In essence, it believes that the human brain is prewired for language development.  Research supports this theory because deaf children are able to produce a natural language, even in language deficient environments.  Although it is accepted that human have the biology to acquire language, this nativist theory has been challenged.Â
The interactionist theory uses information processing perspectives to language development.  Another type focuses on social interactions.  Information process theorists believe that children understand complex language by using their cognitive skills.Â
Both theories agree that infants are analyzers of speech and other information.  They differ in the aspect that infants cannot analyze higher levels of language such as grammar.  It is believed that grammatical competence depends on specific brain structures.
Social and cultural influences.
The social-interactionist theory proposes that children strive to communicate which in turn, gives caregiver the opportunity to cultivate appropriate language experiences to relate the content back to social meanings.  Children’s social competencies and experiences affect language progression.Â
Genetics and environment play a major role in language development.  Girls physically maturing faster than boys, temperaments, and caregiver-child conversations are all influential in language development.
The referential and expressive styles of learning reflect early ideas of the functions of language. Referential-style children are actively involved in exploring objects.  Expressive-style children are very much sociable and their parents tend to use more verbal routines.  Both styles are linked to culture.  Emphasis on various cultural aspects including group belongings and social routines help influence language acquisition.Â
Strategies for language acquisition.
There are several strategies that parents and caregivers can use to promote language acquisition.  I believe that building relationships with children yields to positive language acquisition.  In order to build relationships, communication is essential.  Children learn best by listening to and watching adults therefore, it is important to model appropriate use of language.  Using parallel talk, talking often, and responding to nonverbal communication with language are all beneficial for language acquisition.Â
Student 2 CERETA
“Vygotsky’s theory suggests that, although children are born with the skills for language development, development is affected and shaped by cultural and social experiences. The culture in which a person develops will have its own values, beliefs and tools of intellectual adaptation. These all have an effect on cognitive functions, including language development. Vygotsky also believed that language is a result of social interactions and that language is responsible for the development of thought”.
Social and Cultural
Social and cultural environments influence the language development in a huge way. Children will always learn first form their environment whether it if good or bad in the United States or Africa. Naturally children will develop language skills it is a part of their developmental process.
Cultural it is based on their environment for instance each race has their own native tongue or there way of communicating. In America, we are more visual learners from the infant enters into a daycare center there will be flashcards or pictures that will help with their language development. And as the infant grows then there is television, movies, and the radio. Whereas in Asia, children learn by writing their language and they are more conversational.
Social factors would be how much time does a parent or care giver spend communicating with the child, is the child communicating back, is there eye contact, and how does the child communicate with other. Another important factor is what type of communication is the child receiving is it just yelling, bad words or positive words.
Three strategies that a parent or a care giver can use:
Ask opened questions- this will build on their language skills and open up there thinking
Play word game or thinking games- I would play name that item and point to things around the house or outside.
And use flash cards with words this helps with language acquisition and the child will also use their thinking skills more.”
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