If we look at Chapter 6.1 in the Lefrancois text, we will see that there are actually three ways that we can compare the data we obtain from our summative assessments.
A criterion-referenced test is where we compare the students’ scores with achieving the standards (LeFranois, 2013).In other words, if we gave students a math test on fractions, we might say if they get a 90% or better on the test, they have achieved mastery of the standards.
A second way to analyze the data from a test is using norm-referenced interpretations (LeFrancois, 2013). This means, we compare the data among the students. In other words, student mastery is determined based on the mastery of all students. So if most students do well and only a few struggled, these students might be considered below average. At the same time, if the entire class did not do so well, those who did better than others may appear to have gained mastery when really they did not.
Finally, the last approach to interpreting data is using the self-reference approach (LeFrancois, 2013). Here, student performance is compared to past performances or what the teacher knows the student is capable of.
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