Introduction and Rationale:

We would learn how different authors have demonstrated that critical refelction is not just a skill set but also a life skill which nurtures the individual in choosing healthier life and prepares an individual a better human being.

Aims and objectives:

To demonstrate and discuss on the various theories studied during this module and my agreement ,disagreement,understanding ,opinion about the thoeries presented by different scholors.

Methodology: As and when the programme progressed there was an understanding of the different perspective of authors. The point of view they had while presenting their ideas and what would be the impact,if they are implemented in real situations.

Findings of the literature review:

Critical Reflection is not only important for students but also for teachers as an individual. It is a lifeskill which helps in self improvment and in turn leads to facilitate in nurturing a good human.Therefore, it should be one of an important element in once life.

Critical reflection allows an individual to think differently.Getting to redo a thing keeping all your previous actions controlled and practiced to get better results or output. Itprovides a framework to think differently about working through various issues and obstacles, and helps educators make purposeful changes to practice to improve children’s outcomes.

no human thought is immune to the ideologizing influence of its social context’ (Burr 1995, p. 21). I agree with the author here,people do get affected by the people,situation around them emotionally,politically and socially.This is unavoidable and therefore their are variations in the learning outcomes.Berger and Luckmann (1966),holds that our realities are deeply influenced by our life experience, which is the main idea behind critical reflection,however it has to be backed up by self learning and self correction.which not only helps in true guidance of correct concept,method,path etc.

(Burr 1995, p. 48)Different metaphors in life are responsible for different experiences,different reactions,perception and opinions and would therefore affect in a different approach,when the teacher handles such situations or individual it leads to different learning for teacher as well. The organizational and individual learning can never be inline at all point of can last for a short period of time and may change accordingly and when it is inlined that is when the learning is at peak,Antonacopoulou (1999).‘Power is tolerable only on condition that it masks a substantial part of itself from us’ (Foucault 1976, p. 86),Many times organisation letz the people believe certain facts so deeply that the individuals starts accepting it as good as truth and become more and more firm. This is a very common thing which we see not only in organisations but have also experienced personally.

Helping with my own hands in the real and practical work, you get far more out of that than out of books. (Mayhew and Edwards 265)The fact remains that the learning which we can experience while doinga practical thing cannot be experienced with theoritical thing.As, the experience has an impression which is more long lasting then in learning.Dewey asserted that a truly progressive education “requires a searching study of society and its moving forces” in order to create a school “that will send into society people able to understand it, to live intelligently as a part of it, and to change it to suit their visions of a better life” (Cremin, “John Dewey” 167-168).But,ofcourse the real meaning of education is to learn the real life aspects and redoing those experiences having learned to do in a better way. And thats when one leads to perfection which is nothing but repeatedly doing a task so many times uptill it turms perfect.

(Dewey, 1916, p. 309). An occupation is a continues activity,but the activity has to be reflected with the right learning which critical reflection would help in ascertaning the mistakes,learning etc.Dewey instead calls such places ‘surroundings’, which greatly affect the learning as the personal experience definately starts trolling with surronding experience.

We may have not experienced but would definately get impacted on the other persons’ eexpeirnce.

Furlong et

  1. (2000:175) suggest that we need to ask some fundamental questions about who does have a

legitimate right to be involved in defining teacher professionalism. Are state control and market forces or professional self-governance really the only models of accountability available to us—or can we develop new approaches to teacher professionalism, based upon more participatory relationships with diverse communities? This is really applicable to teaching as this profession is taken very lightly due to which people think that any degree would make them become a teacher.Whereas,the other profession requires a proper degree etc.This not only leads to wrong people in the profession but also,spoils the interest and trust of the students.

“inquiry communities” engaged in the generation of “knowledge-of-practice”. I borrow these

terms from Cochran-Smith and Lytle (1999a) who define knowledge-of-practice as the

knowledge that is generated “when teachers treat their own classrooms as sites for

intentional investigation at the same time that they treat knowledge and theory produced

by others as generative material for interrogation and interpretation. This concept leads to inquirers which develops the child with a habit of self learning. The instinct of child is curiousity which is developed when the child is not provided with ready answers but asked to find thse answers by themselves. This skill in turn helps in developing many secondary habits which is a important tool in life.Being independent is a very important skill which gets inbibed when the child becomes an inquirer.

The child does not want to be spoon fed which makes learning more imoactful.Tove Pettersson, May Britt Postholm, Annlaug Flem and Sigrun Gudmundsdottir’s chapter, entitled “Cultural Scaffolding:

The cultural impact of not only the student but the teacher also has a potential learning hazards.The acceptance of different culture in comparison to tolerance totally depends on how international or exposed is the child with the different variet of the cultures. The output varies with the kind of exposure the child or indivual had with that culture and that is when the perception is formed which has a long lasting effect on child’s mind.The pre-notions are the one which acts as an obstacle for new knowledge,as it comes with filters and differs in understanding.

The cultural differences can be earased once the principle sets up a universal mission and follows it strictly along with the othet staff,teachers and students. The leadership of the principle is what sets the school atmosphere.the transformational style is the most effective one,however other styles like authoritative,entrepreneur etc are applicable depeding on situations.Bass and Riggio (2006) state that the essence of transformational leadership lies in developing employee commitment, which then leads to the achievement of the goals and objectives of the organization.

Reflective practice involves what the teacher does before entering the classroom, while in the classroom, and retrospectively after leaving the classroom. Teacher candidates are therefore required to distinguish among reflection for practice, reflection in practice, and reflection on practice. The first is a sort of anticipatory reflection on future experiences, made by stepping back from or out of the situation to consider the various alternatives and their possible consequences. Reflection in practice—thinking on one’s feet, acting in a flash, reflecting in the moment of acting—is the most difficult of the three for teacher candidates. Many teacher candidates believe.

The information base, besides my own experience as Project Coordinator, comes from mid-term evaluations in all institutions in the years 1999–2000 and the final assessment made in 2002 (Avalos, 2000).The revision and upgradation of teacher traning programmes is not only important but an essential ongoing improvement process which should be impemented in the system. The change in the mindset due to technology makes it a very important aspect in developin the quality and qualified teacher. It is not just the theoretical knowldge but also the professional along with expirence which makes a teacher conduct a good class.Which is possible by continuos feedback not only by the parents but also from the students and mentors.

Overall, self-identity and the roles we play in class and outside helps us in discovering newness, innovate, collaborate, and come of my comfort zone welcoming multi-culture, varied ages, social topic discussion, and enhancing communities.James Gee (2001) provides the most elaborate view of these contextual forces, identify-ing four interrelated perspectives on identity: the nature perspective


Critical reflection enables teacher learn many aspects of classroom management,cultural influences,self awareness to availe the benefits in the following areas: first, deep understanding of the ways in which their teaching styles enhance their ability to challenge the traditional mode of practice;

secondly, the growth toward greater effectiveness. Resulting in their engagement in reflecting on their practice or previous experiences, teacher’s examined everything they regularly observed and performed in their classrooms. This finding agrees with

The journals,books of Brockbank, A, & McGill, (2002), Higgins, C (2011), Hendley, BP (1986) ,Lynch, M (2012),Kompf, M, & Denicolo, P (2005).

Having said that it is very important that while teacher teaches at the same time an ongoing learning and slef reflection of teacher should be not ignored.  

Word length: 2500


Week 1: Theories, concepts and models of reflective practice and reflexivity

Book: Reflective Learning in Practice by Brockbank, A, & McGill, (2002) 

Chapter: Part 1 Purpose and Themes / 4 Reflective Learning in Practice, pages 18 – 28

Week 2: Application and critique of theories and models in educational contexts

Book: Dewey, Russell, Whitehead: Philosophers As Educators, Hendley, BP (1986) 

Chapter: Two / John Dewey and the Laboratory School, pages 14 – 42

Week 3: The impact of personal and cultural values in educational contexts

Book: The Good Life of Teaching: An Ethics of Professional Practice, Higgins, C (2011) 

Chapter: 4 A Question of Experience: Dewey and Gadamer on Practical Wisdom, pages 111 – 134

Week 5: Identity and self as an education professional

Book: Connecting Policy and Practice: Challenges for Teaching and Learning in Schools and Universities, Kompf, M, & Denicolo, P (2005) 

Chapter: 1 Teacher Education and the Development of Professional Identity: Learning to be a Teacher by Judyth Sachs, pages 5 – 21

Week 6: Responsibilities, leadership stances and mentoring in teaching/education

Book: A Guide to Effective School Leadership Theories, Lynch, M (2012) 

Chapters: Transformational Leadership: The (Un)Disputed Champion of Leadership Strategies, pages 1 – 16

2 Instructional Leadership: A Catalyst for the Promotion of Teaching and Learning, pages 17 – 34

3 Distributed Leadership: A Humanistic Approach to Shared Governance, pages 35 – 53

4 Ethical Leadership: Using Your Moral Compass to Steer the Ship, pages 54 – 71

                    5 Emotional Leadership: Using Your Heart to Lead, pages 72 – 90

6 Entrepreneurial Leadership: How Schools can Learn from Business Leaders, pages 91 – 108

                    7 Strategic Leadership: Those Who Fail to Plan, Plan to Fail, pages 109 – 127

8 Sustainable Leadership: The Race is Won by Those Who Endure, pages 128 – 146

9 Invitational Leadership: Developing a School Culture of Trust, Respect, and Hope, pages 147 – 163

10 Constructivist Leadership: A Framework for Building Sustainable School Improvement, pages 164 – 184

Week 7: Professional development review and effective portfolio building

Book: Connecting Policy and Practice: Challenges for Teaching and Learning in Schools and Universities, Kompf, M, & Denicolo, P (2005) 

Chapter: 25 Teachers Becoming Researchers: Reflections on Professional Development, pages 236 – 243



Critical reflection is not only important for the students but also important for professionals to build up a healthy tomorrow and a healthy world.As, it teaches an individual to develop a skill set of learning from expereinces and improving on oneself,without holding others responsible.


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