A Phenomenological Study of the Lived Experiences of How a Mother Copes with the Suicide of her Child

Checklist:
☐ Briefly introduce the study topic, state the research problem, and describe who or what is impacted by this problem.
☐ Clearly articulate the study purpose and guiding theoretical or conceptual framework of the study.
☐ Provide details about the research methodology, participants, questions, design, procedures, and analysis.
☐ Clearly present the results in relation to the research questions.
☐ State the conclusions to include both the potential implications of the results on and the recommendations for future research and practice.
☐ Do not include citations and abbreviations or acronyms, except those noted as exceptions by the American Psychological Association (APA).
☐ Do not exceed 350 words. Strive for one page.
Acknowledgements
Begin writing here…
Table of Contents
Chapter 1: Introduction. 1
Statement of the Problem.. 4
Purpose of the Study. 5
Introduction to Theoretical or Conceptual Framework 6
Introduction to Research Methodology and Design. 7
Research Questions. 7
Hypotheses 8
Significance of the Study. 8
Definitions of Key Terms. 9
Summary. 10
Chapter 2: Literature Review.. 11
Theoretical or Conceptual Framework 11
Subtopic 12
Summary. 13
Chapter 3: Research Method. 14
Research Methodology and Design. 14
Population and Sample. 14
Materials or Instrumentation. 15
Operational Definitions of Variables 16
Study Procedures. 17
Data Analysis. 17
Assumptions 18
Limitations. 18
Delimitations. 18
Ethical Assurances. 19
Summary. 19
Chapter 4: Findings. 20
XXX of the Data. 20
Results. 21
Evaluation of the Findings. 22
Summary. 22
Chapter 5: Implications, Recommendations, and Conclusions. 23
Implications. 23
Recommendations for Practice. 24
Recommendations for Future Research. 24
Conclusions. 24
References. 26
Appendix A XXX.. 32
Appendix B XXX.. 33
List of Tables
Begin list of tables here…
List of Figures
Begin list of figures here

Chapter 1: Introduction

Research states the death of a child is perceived to be a painful loss for parents; additionally, Morris, Fletcher & Goldstein’s (2019) study reveals the death of a young child challenges how life progresses (Bottomley et al., 2019; Dutra et al., 2018; Morris et al., 2019; Pritchard & Buckle, 2018). A report from the National Center for Health Statistics cites suicide as the second leading cause of premature death for 10-14-year-olds in the United States (Curtin, 2020; Curtin & Heron, 2019; Keeshin et al., 2018; Ruch et al., 2019). The suicide rate among individuals of the ages 10-14 years old increased 3.9 % in the United States in 2018, leaving behind more than half a million people feeling a loss (Cook et al., 2017; Curtin, 2020, Hedegaard et al., 2020; Pitman et al., 2018). Self-inflicted death generates psychological and behavioral problems for some families because it is typically the family that is closest to the young deceased (Asare-Doku et al., 2017; Dutra et al., 2018; Morris et al., 2019; Reynolds et al., 2020).
Researchers such as Borisonik and Vladinironva (2018), Morris et al. (2019), Kochen et al. (2020), and Wainwright et al. (2020) cite in their studies some parents encounter emotional, physical, and poor mental health outcomes due to their young child’s suicide. Studies attach higher suicide rates and higher rates of intense grief to mothers who have lost a child to suicide, especially if the child is over one year old (Bottomley et al., 2019; Morris et al., 2019; Pitman et al., 2018; Wainwright et al., 2020). The argument can be made the grieving process from losing a child to suicide is more difficult than the grieving process from natural death (Denhup, 2017; Kawashima & Kawano, 2019; Lee et al., 2019; Maciejewski & Prigerson, 2017).
Researchers’ possible explanation is mothers create a bond with their child from the beginning of pregnancy, and because of the roles, the mother and child may possibly have a closer connection (Fernández-Sola et al., 2020; Morris et al., 2019; Rostila et al., 2018). Some mothers often are not prepared for an abrupt end to their child’s life, consequently these mothers may experience panic, disbelief, and shock (Asare et al., 2020; Dutra et al., 2018; Kochen et al., 2020; Raitio et al., 2015). Kochen et al. (2020) elucidate some bereaved mothers can accept their child’s death if they prepare for the process; for example, her child dies due to terminal illness; however, if the death is sudden, as in the instance of suicide, the mother is not prepared, making the death difficult to accept (Asare et al., 2020; Dutra et al., 2018; Fernández-Sola et al., 2020)
Studies suggest a parent may feel others around them minimize or not acknowledge their loss (Asare-Doku et al., 2017; Fernández-Sola et al., 2020; Jordan & McGann, 2017; Peters et al., 2016; Shields et al., 2019). The parent’s possible grief can be classified as disenfranchised grief. Doka (1989) defined disenfranchised grief as grief an individual encounters when they endure a loss that is not publicly acknowledged (Westerlund et al., 2020). An example of this type of grief is a mother’s grief over losing her child to an accidental drug overdose. Family or friends’ behaviors and comments which are not visibly supportive of the mother’s pain might silence the mother’s grieving experience (DeGroot & Vik, 2017; Dutil, 2019; Shannon & Wilkinson, 2020; Verma & Neimeyer, 2020).
Pritchard and Buckle (2018) point out the death of a child can be challenging in reconciling the overall story the mother integrates into her world, and how the family communicates and supports the mother is vital (Bottomley et al., 2019; Morris et al., 2019). Shields et al. (2019) study argues the bereaved mothers may see themselves as being the main source of strength for the family, and these same mothers believe they must be strong and not talk about their pain for fear of possibly putting a burden on the family which leaves the mothers struggling internally. Findings from Jordan & McGann (2017) study and later supported by Shields et al. (2019) study reveal the experience of some bereaved mothers who can find other mothers who commonly share the same experiences, can work through their grief (Raitio et al., 2015).
Shields et al. (2019 ) also reveal that a grieving mother may struggle to complete her everyday functions, such as meeting her other children’s parental duties (Borisonik & Kholmogorova, 2019; Fernández-Sola et al., 2020; Raitio et al., 2015). Borisonik and Kholmogorova (2019); Bottomley et al., (2019); and Shields et al. (2019), quantitative review note some mothers might suffer a sense of identity, especially if they lost their only child and have to face the challenge of re-defining who they are.
Hunt et al. (2019) studied how to best help suicide survivors and report participants state belief in God or religious faith aids the bereaved in finding meaning. Dutra et al.’s (2018) study shows mothers who rely on God for help can move forward in their lives; additionally, Pritchard et al.’s (2018) study mentions 30% of participants say God or their faith helps them find meaning.
Researchers such as Ross et al. (2018), Entilli et al. (2021), and Albuquerque et al. (2018) found even though the mothers who engage in the process of accepting the death of their child and who continue with family customs are still searching for answers. The researchers point out they observed mothers at the 6, 12, and 24-month mark still asking what they could have done differently to avoid their child dying by suicide. The research eludes some parents making up their own story of suicide (Albuquerque et al., 2018; Entilli et al., 2018; Ross et al., 2018).
There is quantitative research measuring a mother’s grief scores due to the death of her child due to sudden infant death syndrome; yet, there is little attention on the lived experience of how a birth mother experiences the loss of her child’s suicide age 10-14 years old (Dunhup, 2017; Entilli et al., 2021; Goldstien, 2018; Morris et al., 2019; Neimeyer, 2021). Understanding how a birth mother might find meaning, experience growth, or reorganize her identity may possibly add a new dimension to an area of research -the lived experience of how a birth mother experiences the suicide of her young child.

Statement of the Problem

The problem to be addressed in this study is that some bereaved mothers of suicide may exhibit an increased risk of suicide and higher levels of grief; thus, addressing how a birth mother experiences her losing her child, age 10-14 years old, might prove to be helpful. The Convention on the Rights of a Child defines persons between the ages of 10-19 as either an adolescent or child (Berman & Silverman, 2020; Richards et al., 2017; Simon et al., 2020; United Nations Children’s Fund UK (UNICEF UK), 1989). The suicide rate, in the United States, for individuals aged 10-14 years old was stable from 2000-2017; however, from 2007 to 2017, the rate tripled; also the suicide rate for individuals aged 15-19 years old in the United States increased by 76% from 2007 to 2017 (Curtin, 2020, Hedegaard et al., 2020; Keeshin et al., 2018; Pitman et al., 2018).
There exist quantitative studies producing statistical data measuring significant differences in distress and mental health scores; however, they do not adequately describe the phenomena; resulting in limited research looking at a deeper understanding of the experience (Dunhup, 2017; Entilli et al., 2021; Goldstien, 2018; Kawashima and Kawano, 2019; Morris et al., 2019).
Lee et al. (2019) interviewed bereaved individuals and found positive outcomes following the suicide of a family member are possible; however, the argument is further studies should look a the process.
This study differs from other studies because it focuses on the experience of the loss, not the outcome.

Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this phenomenological study is to understand better the lived experience of how a birth mother experiences the suicide of her young child age 10-14. Snowballing sampling will be used to recruit participants. This researcher will recruit from the American Foundation for Suicide Prevention Greater Philadelphia Chapter located in Havertown, Pennsylvania, as there is a significant movement titled “Coming out of Darkness,” which addresses suicide and its impact on families.
Data will be collected using semi-structured interviews with open-ended questions, as this method of data collection provides opportunities for the participant and this researcher to investigate the lived experience thoroughly. The birth mothers will be encouraged to bring journal or diary entries, facilitating a deeper understanding of their experience. The data will be coded and analyzed manually to identify recurring themes, categories, and phrases.

Introduction to Theoretical Framework

Meaning Reconstruction Theory consists of sense-making and benefit-finding (Neimeyer, 2016, 2017, 2019; Kawashima & Kawano, 2019; Smid, 2020). This theory is familiar with Frankl’s (1959) work Man’s Search for Meaning, where individuals can find meaning, purpose, and worth in an adverse event if they go searching (Boss, 2006; Kawashima & Kawano 2019; Neimeyer, 2019, Supiano, 2019). Sense-making involves asking questions and discover an understanding of the loss. Benefit-finding involves building new purpose or life lessons and possibly experiencing positive growth (Kawashima & Kawano 2019; Lee et al., 2019; Neimeyer, 2017; 2019; Supiano, 2019).
Neimeyer (1998, 2000, 2006, 2017, 2019) is primarily responsible for developing the Meaning Reconstruction Theory model. This theory’s roots are constructivism, which is knowledge gained through experience, initially created by Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget (DeRobertis, 2020; Ganett, 2018; Milman et al., 2018). This theory involves using self-narratives of how the loss disrupts the individual’s assumption of how their life and their world should progress naturally (Neimeyer, 2019; Smid, 2020; Supiano, 2018). The primary intention is for the bereaved individual to actively participate in the grieving process by possibly shifting their negative inner dialogue, focusing on feelings of guilt and shame, to a more positive internal personal conversation (Boss, 2006; Neimeyer 2019; Smid, 2020).
According to Kawashima and Kawano (2019), Neimeyer (2019) and Smid, (2020), Mean-Making Theory helps lessen the gravity of the impact of suicide on the survivor and may promote personal growth for the bereaved (Milman et al., 2018; Rozalski, Holland, & Neimeyer, 2016; Neimeyer, 2019; Supiano, 2019). Meaning Reconstruction Theory builds on cognitive constructivism while stressing the importance of making sense and finding benefit from the loss (Neimeyer, 2019, 2016).

Introduction to Research Methodology and Design

The research is qualitative and phenomenological. Qualitative research aims to provide a rich description of the experience by not manipulating the results in any fashion, unlike quantitative, which produces statistical figures (Filhour, 2017; Tarnoki & Puentes, 2019; Zahle, 2019). Levitt et al. (2018) cite qualitative data research typically involves fewer participants to gather the rich, detailed experience (Azizpour et al., 2019; Tarnoki & Puentes, 2019).
Edmund Husserl is given tribute to being the founder of phenomenology though there were other influential persons: Martin Heidegger, Jean-Paul Sartre, Maurice Merleau-Ponty, and Emmanuel Levinas (Englander, 2020; Halling, 2020; Zahavi, 2019). Phenomenology design is to understand and convey the meaning of an individual’s experience by the researcher listening to the participant talk about the experience and then the researcher develops common themes or concepts to accurately represent the participants’ experience (Adu, 2019; Azizpour et al., 2019; Filhour, 2017). Zahavi (2019) cites phenomenology as the best method when studying human behavior, looking at the how, what, and studying topics that are difficult to measure, such as a participant’s perception of an event (Azizpour et al., 2019; Tarnoki & Puentes, 2019). Phenomenology rejects any assumptions; thus, the goal is to allow for free-flowing conversation by asking specific pre-scripted questions centered around the participant’s experience during the interview process (Bazen et al., 2021; Kalu, 2019; Levitt et al., 2018).
Personal interviews are the best method for this research because face-to-face interviews may provide a feeling of trust and empathy and a better understanding of the participant’s experience (Bazen et al., 2021; Maher & Neale, 2019; Titlestad et al., 2020). The personal face-to-face interview might benefit the bereaved birth mother, who might welcome the opportunity to tell her story.
Research Questions

RQ1

How have you been able to make sense of the loss?

RQ2
How did you find new life lessons or purpose?
RQ3
How did you experience growth?
Significance of the Study
Bottomley et al. (2019); Dutra et al. (2018); Morris et al. (2019); Pritchard & Buckle (2018) research argues the loss of a young child is a painful and traumatic bereavement for parents in comparison to losing a loved one to a natural cause. According to Lee et al. (2019), the grieving process of losing a loved one to suicide is more difficult and possibly more potent than any other type of loss (Rostila et al., 2018; Wainwright et al., 2020).
Bereaved parents may exhibit higher levels of stress and higher mental pain levels and may struggle to find meaning in the loss (Albuquerque et al., 2018; Kawashima & Kawano, 2019; Morris et al., 2019; Pitman et al., 2018; Wainwright et al., 2020). The grief levels of fathers to mothers show some mothers exhibit higher suicide rates and higher grief levels, especially if the child is over one year old (Bottomley et al., 2019; Morris et al., 2019; Pitman et al., 2018; Wainwright et al., 2020).
The characteristics of individuals bereaved by natural causes are in literature; however, there is little documentation on the experiences of suicide survivors of young children (Bottomley et al., 2019; Kawashima & Kawano, 2019; Morris et al., 2019; Pitman et al., 2018). Quantitative outcomes detail statistical data scores measuring distress; these studies bring little information on how some mothers experience their grief after the suicide of their child ( Dunhup, 2017; Entilli et al., 2021; Goldstien, 2018; Kawashima and Kawano, 2019; Morris et al., 2019).

Hunt et al. ( 2019) elucidate less than 5% of academic literature relating to suicide deals with postvention; Kawashima and Kawano (2019) call for further studies to understand the mean-making experience. Lee et al. (2019) stress future research is essential to examine the process and the experience.

Meaning Reconstruction Theory will be the lens to use in this study. This study’s results possibly add to the existing research by identifying the birth mother’s specific experiences. This study may determine how she may experience personal growth and how she may restructure her new identity. This research model perhaps may be used with other grieving populations to help make sense and find benefit following their loss due to sudden death.

Definitions of Key Terms

Benefit-finding – Make sense of loss by finding some benefit or life lesson resulting in personal growth. For example, survivors incorporate the loss, adapt, and possibly experience personal gain by volunteering to help another suicide survivor adapt to the loss (Milman et al., 2019; Neimeyer, 2019; Supiano, 2019). A researcher might ask how you find meaning or purpose in life after the loss?

Grief is the experience a person has when they lose someone they love (Worden, 2002). It is an emotional pain directly relating to the death of someone they love, a longing for the deceased, and possibly constantly thinking about how the person died (Smid, 2020). Some researchers describe the grief from losing a child as intense, traumatic, devastating, and longer-lasting than any other type of grief from natural causes (Albuquerque et al., 2018; Entilli et al., 2021; Kawashima & Kawano, 2019; Morris et al., 2019).

Mean-Making– lessens the adverse effects of grief outcomes (Milman et al., 2019; Neimeyer, 2019; Supiano, 2019). It results from a suicide survivor incorporating the loss into their life story and acquainting themselves toward a new direction for the future without their loved one (Milman et al., 2019; Smid, 2020).
Personal growth is a positive change in an individual’s identity due to grief challenges (Milman et al., 2019; Neimeyer, 2019). Suicide survivors might find they have learned what they value more in life, such as taking more time for self-care or going to new places they have always wanted to see (Fernández-Sola et al., 2020; Kawashima & Kawano, 2019; Shields et al., 2019).
Sense-Making – Can lessen the negative consequence of grief outcomes (Neimeyer, 2016). It attempts to comprehend the loss (Milman et al., 2019; Neimeyer, 2019; Supiano, 2019). The researcher asks how you have dealt with or made sense of your loss (Milman et al., 2019; Neimeyer, 2019; Supiano. 2019)?

Summary

The National Center for Health Statistics cites suicide as the second leading cause of premature death for 10-14-year-olds in the United States (Curtin et al., 2020; Curtin & Heron, 2019; Keeshin et al., 2018; Ruch et al., 2019). The suicide rate among individuals of the ages 10-14 years old increased 3.9 % in the United States in 2018, leaving behind more than half a million people feeling a loss (Cook et al., 2017; Curtin, 2020, Danner et al., 2020; Hedegaard et al., 2020).
Researchers such as Borisonik and Vladinironva (2018); Morris et al. (2019); Kochen et al. (2020); and Wainwright et al. (2020) cite in their studies some parents encounter psychological, emotional, physical, and poor mental health outcomes due to the death of their child from suicide. Studies attach higher suicide rates and higher rates of intense grief to some birth mothers who have lost a child to suicide, especially if the child is over one year old (Bottomley et al., 2019; Morris et al., 2019; Pitman et al., 2018; Wainwright et al., 2020). The suicide of a young child might challenge some birth mothers in how they accept the loss; they may struggle in finding meaning, and some birth mothers might experience they have to re-establish their identity due to the suicide of their child. This proposed study will explore the lived experience of how a birth mother experiences the loss of her young child, possibly find significance or unsolicited benefits, and how she may re-establishes her identity through the lens of Meaning Reconstruction Theory.

Chapter 2: Literature Review

Begin writing here…
Checklist:
☐ Begin with the first sentence of the purpose statement and problem statement that leads to a brief explanation of the organization of the literature review. Do not simply cut and paste the Purpose Statement section from Chapter 1.
☐ Provide an overview of the sub-headings in the literature that will be discussed.
☐ At the end of this section, indicate the databases accessed and the search engines used. Discuss all the search parameters, including the search terms and their combinations (with more detailed search terms located in an appendix, if appropriate), range of years, and types of literature.
☐ Devote approximately 30 to 60 pages to this chapter to include citations to at least 50 relevant sources.

Theoretical or Conceptual Framework

Begin writing here…
Checklist:
☐ Describe the guiding theoretical/conceptual framework of the study, including the definitions of all the concepts, an explanation of the relationships among the concepts, and a presentation of all the assumptions and propositions.
☐ Explain the origin and development of the framework. Demonstrate detailed knowledge of and familiarity with both the historical and the current literature on the framework.
☐ Identify existing research studies that used this framework in a similar way. Mention alternative frameworks, with a justification of why the selected framework was chosen.
☐ Describe how and why the selected framework relates to the present study and how it guided the development of the problem statement, purpose statement, and research questions.

Subtopic

Begin writing here…

Level 3 Heading

Text…
Level 4 Heading. Text…
Checklist:
☐ Critically analyze (i.e., note the strengths and weaknesses) and synthesize (i.e., integrate) the existing research. Rather than reporting on each study independently, describe everything known on the topic by reviewing the entire body of work.
☐ Present a balanced integrative critical review of the literature, ensuring all points of view are included. Cover all the important issues with a discussion of areas of convergence (i.e., agreement) and divergence (i.e., disagreement). Provide potential explanations for areas of divergence.

Summary

Begin writing here…
Checklist:
☐ Briefly restate the key points discussed in the chapter. Review the headings and/or table of contents to ensure all key points are covered.
☐ Highlight areas of convergence and divergence as well as gaps in the literature that support the need for the study. This discussion should logically lead to Chapter 3, where the research methodology and design will be discussed.

Chapter 3: Research Method

Begin writing here…
Checklist:
☐ Begin with an introduction and restatement of the problem and purpose sentences verbatim.
☐ Provide a brief overview of the contents of this chapter, including a statement that identifies the research methodology and design.

Research Methodology and Design

Begin writing here…
Checklist:
☐ Describe the research methodology and design. Elaborate upon their appropriateness in relation to the study problem, purpose, and research questions.
☐ Identify alternative methodologies and designs and indicate why they were determined to be less appropriate than the ones selected. Do not simply list and describe research methodologies and designs in general.

Population and Sample

Begin writing here…
Checklist:
☐ Describe the population, including the estimated size and relevant characteristics.
☐ Explain why the population is appropriate, given the study problem, purpose, and research questions.
☐ Describe the sample that will be (proposal) or was (manuscript) obtained.
☐ Explain why the sample is appropriate, given the study problem, purpose, and research questions.
☐ Describe how the participants will be (proposal) or were (manuscript) recruited (e.g., email lists from professional organizations, flyers) and/or the data will be (proposal) or were (manuscript) obtained (e.g., archived data, public records) with sufficient detail so the study could be replicated.

Materials or Instrumentation

Begin writing here…
Checklist:
☐ Describe in detail any field testing or pilot testing of instruments to include their results and any subsequent modifications.

Operational Definitions of Variables

Begin writing here…

XXX

Text…
Checklist:
☐ For quantitative and mixed methods studies, identify how each variable will be (proposal) or was (manuscript) used in the study. Use terminology appropriate for the selected statistical test (e.g., independent/dependent, predictor/criterion, mediator, moderator).
☐ Base the operational definitions on published research and valid and reliable instruments.
☐ Identify the specific instrument that will be (proposal) or was (manuscript) used to measure each variable.
☐ Describe the level of measurement of each variable (e.g., nominal, ordinal, interval, ratio), potential scores for each variable (e.g., the range [0–100] or levels [low, medium, high]), and data sources. If appropriate, identify what specific scores (e.g., subscale scores, total scores) will be (proposal) or were (manuscript) included in the analysis and how they will be (proposal) or were (manuscript) derived (e.g., calculating the sum, difference, average).

Study Procedures

Begin writing here…
Checklist:
☐ Describe the exact steps that will be (proposal) or were (manuscript) followed to collect the data, addressing what data as well as how, when, from where, and from whom those data will be (proposal) or were (manuscript) collected in enough detail the study can be replicated.

Data Analysis

Begin writing here…
Checklist:
☐ Describe the strategies that will be (proposal) or were (manuscript) used to code and/or analyze the data, and any software that will be (proposal) or was (manuscript) used.
☐ Ensure the data that will be (proposal) or were (manuscript) analyzed can be used to answer the research questions and/or test the hypotheses with the ultimate goal of addressing the identified problem.
☐ Use proper terminology in association with each design/analysis (e.g., independent variable and dependent variable for an experimental design, predictor and criterion variables for regression).
☐ For quantitative studies, describe the analysis that will be (proposal) or was (manuscript) used to test each hypothesis. Provide evidence the statistical test chosen is appropriate to test the hypotheses and the data meet the assumptions of the statistical tests.
☐ For qualitative studies, describe how the data will be (proposal) or were (manuscript) processed and analyzed, including any triangulation efforts. Explain the role of the researcher.
☐ For mixed methods studies, include all of the above.

Assumptions

Begin writing here…
Checklist:
☐ Discuss the assumptions along with the corresponding rationale underlying them.

Limitations

Begin writing here…
Checklist:
☐ Describe the study limitations.
☐ Discuss the measures taken to mitigate these limitations.

Delimitations

Begin writing here…
Checklist:
☐ Explain how these research decisions relate to the existing literature and theoretical/conceptual framework, problem statement, purpose statement, and research questions.

Ethical Assurances

Begin writing here…
Checklist:
☐ Confirm in a statement the study will (proposal) or did (manuscript) receive approval from Northcentral University’s Institutional Review Board (IRB) prior to data collection.
☐ If the risk to participants is greater than minimal, discuss the relevant ethical issues and how they will be (proposal) or were (manuscript) addressed.
☐ Describe how confidentiality or anonymity will be (proposal) or was (manuscript) achieved.
☐ Identify how the data will be (proposal) or were (manuscript) securely stored in accordance with IRB requirements.
☐ Describe the role of the researcher in the study. Discuss relevant issues, including biases as well as personal and professional experiences with the topic, problem, or context. Present the strategies that will be (proposal) or were (manuscript) used to prevent these biases and experiences from influencing the analysis or findings.
☐ In the dissertation manuscript only, include the IRB approval letter in an appendix.

Summary

Begin writing here…
Checklist:
☐ Summarize the key points presented in the chapter.
☐ Logically lead the reader to the next chapter on the findings of the study.

Chapter 4: Findings

Begin writing here…
Checklist:
☐ Begin with an introduction and restatement of the problem and purpose sentences verbatim and the organization of the chapter.
☐ Organize the entire chapter around the research questions/hypotheses.

XXX of the Data

Begin writing here…
Checklist:
☐ For qualitative studies, clearly identify the means by which the trustworthiness of the data was established. Discuss credibility (e.g., triangulation, member checks), transferability (e.g., the extent to which the findings are generalizable to other situations), dependability (e.g., an in-depth description of the methodology and design to allow the study to be repeated), and confirmability (e.g., the steps to ensure the data and findings are not due to participant and/or researcher bias).
☐ For quantitative studies, explain the extent to which the data meet the assumptions of the statistical test and identify any potential factors that might impact the interpretation of the findings. Provide evidence of the psychometric soundness (i.e., adequate validity and reliability) of the instruments from the literature as well as in this study (as appropriate). Do not merely list and describe all the measures of validity and reliability.
☐ Mixed methods studies should include discussions of the trustworthiness of the data as well as validity and reliability.

Results

Begin writing here…
Checklist:
☐ Briefly discuss the overall study. Organize the presentation of the results by the research questions/hypotheses.
☐ Objectively report the results of the analysis without discussion, interpretation, or speculation.
☐ Provide an overview of the demographic information collected. It can be presented in a table. Ensure no potentially identifying information is reported.

Research Question 1/Hypothesis

Text…
☐ Report all the results (without discussion) salient to the research question/hypothesis. Identify common themes or patterns.
☐Use tables and/or figures to report the results as appropriate.
☐ For quantitative studies, report any additional descriptive information as appropriate. Identify the assumptions of the statistical test and explain how the extent to which the data met these assumptions was tested. Report any violations and describe how they were managed as appropriate. Make decisions based on the results of the statistical analysis. Include relevant test statistics, p values, and effect sizes in accordance with APA requirements.
☐ For qualitative studies, describe the steps taken to analyze the data to explain how the themes and categories were generated. Include thick descriptions of the participants’ experiences. Provide a comprehensive and coherent reconstruction of the information obtained from all the participants.
☐ For mixed methods studies, include all of the above.

Evaluation of the Findings

Begin writing here…
Checklist:
☐ Interpret the results in light of the existing research and theoretical or conceptual framework (as discussed in Chapters 1 and 2). Briefly indicate the extent to which the results were consistent with existing research and theory.
☐ Organize this discussion by research question/hypothesis.
☐ Do not draw conclusions beyond what can be interpreted directly from the results.
☐ Devote approximately one to two pages to this section.

Summary

Begin writing here…
Checklist:
☐ Summarize the key points presented in the chapter.

Chapter 5: Implications, Recommendations, and Conclusions

Begin writing here…
Checklist:
☐ Begin with an introduction and restatement of the problem and purpose sentences verbatim, and a brief review of methodology, design, results, and limitations.
☐ Conclude with a brief overview of the chapter.

Implications

Begin writing here…
Checklist:
☐ Organize the discussion around each research question and (when appropriate) hypothesis individually. Support all the conclusions with one or more findings from the study.
☐ Discuss any factors that might have influenced the interpretation of the results.
☐ Present the results in the context of the study by describing the extent to which they address the study problem and purpose and contribute to the existing literature and framework described in Chapter 2.
☐ Describe the extent to which the results are consistent with existing research and theory and provide potential explanations for unexpected or divergent results.

Research Question 1/Hypothesis

Text…

Recommendations for Practice

Begin writing here…
Checklist:
☐ Discuss recommendations for how the findings of the study can be applied to practice and/or theory. Support all the recommendations with at least one finding from the study and frame them in the literature from Chapter 2.
☐ Do not overstate the applicability of the findings.

Recommendations for Future Research

Begin writing here…
Checklist:
☐ Based on the framework, findings, and implications, explain what future researchers might do to learn from and build upon this study. Justify these explanations.
☐ Discuss how future researchers can improve upon this study, given its limitations.
☐ Explain what the next logical step is in this line of research.

Conclusions

Begin writing here…
Checklist:
☐ Provide a strong, concise conclusion to include a summary of the study, the problem addressed, and the importance of the study.
☐ Present the “take-home message” of the entire study.
☐ Emphasize what the results of the study mean with respect to previous research and either theory (PhD studies) or practice (applied studies).

References

Albuquerque, S., Narciso, I., & Pereira, M. (2018). Posttraumatic growth in bereaved parents: A multidimensional model of associated factors. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 10(2), 199-207. doi:10.1037/tra0000305
Asare-Doku, W., Osafo, J., & Akotia, C. S. (2017). The experiences of attempt survivor families and how they cope after a suicide attempt in ghana: A qualitative study. BMC Psychiatry, 17(1), 178. doi:10.1186/s12888-017-1336-9
Asare, G. O., Annor, F., & Yendork, J. S. (2020). “It is not something you can easily forget”: Ghanaian parents’ experiences of child loss. Omega, 30222820981230. doi:10.1177/0030222820981230
Attig, T. (2004). Disenfranchised grief revisited: Discounting hope and love. Omega: Journal of Death & Dying, 49(3), 197
Azizpour, M., Taghizadeh, Z., Mohammadi, N., & Vedadhir, A. (2019). Being at the center of attention: Iranian women’s experience after suicide attempts. Perspectives in Psychiatric Care, 55(3), 445-452. doi:10.1111/ppc.12337
Baddeley, J. L., Williams, J. L., Rynearson, T., Correa, F., Saindon, C., & Rheingold, A. A. (2015). Death thoughts and images in treatment-seekers after violent loss. Death Studies, 39(2), 84-91. doi:10.1080/07481187.2014.893274
Barnard, A. (2019). Grief Counselling and Grief Therapy: A Handbook for the Mental Health Practitioner, J. William Worden. British Journal of Social Work, 49(6), 1692–1694.
doi-org.proxy1.ncu.edu/10.1093/bjsw/bcz004
Berman, A. L., & Silverman, M. M. (2020). A call to clarify fuzzy sets. Crisis: The Journal of
Crisis Intervention and Suicide Prevention, doi:10.1027/0227-5910/a000673
Bazen, A., Barg, F. K., & Takeshita, J. (2021). Research techniques made simple: An introduction to qualitative research. Journal of Investigative Dermatology, 141(2), 241-247. doi:10.1016/j.jid.2020.11.029
Bottomley, J. S., Smigelsky, M. A., Bellet, B. W., Flynn, L., Price, J., & Neimeyer, R. A. (2019). Distinguishing the meaning making processes of survivors of suicide loss: An expansion of the meaning of loss codebook. Death Studies, 43(2), 92-102.
Cook, F. J., Langford, L., & Ruocco, K. (2017). Evidence- and practice-informed approach to implementing peer grief support after suicide systematically in the USA. Death Studies, 41(10), 648-658. doi:10.1080/07481187.2017.1335552
Curtin, S. C. (2020). State suicide rates among adolescents and young adults aged 10-24: United states, 2000-2018. National Vital Statistics Reports : From the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System, 69(11), 1-10.
Curtin, S. C., & Heron, M. (2019). Death rates due to suicide and homicide among persons aged 10-24: United states, 2000-2017. NCHS Data Brief, (352), 1-8.
DeGroot, J. M., & Vik, T. A. (2017). Disenfranchised grief following a traumatic birth. Journal of Loss & Trauma, 22(4), 346-356. doi:10.1080/15325024.2017.1284519
Doka, K. J. (1989). Disenfranchised grief. In K. J. Doka (Ed.), Disenfranchised grief: Recognizing hidden sorrow (p. 3–11). Lexington Books/D. C. Heath and Com.
Dominguez, K. M. (2018). Encountering disenfranchised grief: An investigation of the clinical lived experiences in dance/movement therapy. American Journal of Dance Therapy, 40(2), 254-276. doi:10.1007/s10465-018-9281-9
Dutil, S. (2019). Adolescent traumatic and disenfranchised grief: Adapting an evidence-based intervention for black and latinx youths in schools. Children & Schools, 41(3), 179-187. doi:10.1093/cs/cdz009
Dutra, K., Corrêa Preis, L., Caetano, J., Guedes dos Santos, J. L., & Lessa, G. (2018). Experiencing suicide in the family: From mourning to the quest for overcoming. Revista Brasileira De Enfermagem, 71, 2146-2153. doi:10.1590/0034-7167-2017-0679
Englander, M. (2020). Phenomenological psychological interviewing. The Humanistic Psychologist, 48(1), 54–73. doi-org.proxy1.ncu.edu/10.1037/hum0000144
Entilli, L., Ross, V., Leo, D. D., Cipolletta, S., & Kairi Kõlves. (2021). Experiences of parental suicide-bereavement: A longitudinal qualitative analysis over two years. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(564), 564. doi:10.3390/ijerph18020564
Fernández-Sola, C., Camacho-Ávila, M., Hernández-Padilla, J. M., Fernández-Medina, I. M., Jiménez-López, F. R., Hernández-Sánchez, E., . . . Granero-Molina, J. (2020). Impact of perinatal death on the social and family context of the parents. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(10) doi:10.3390/ijerph17103421
Filhour, L. D. (2017). The lived experience of suffering of males after blunt trauma: A phenomenological study doi:10.1097/JTN.0000000000000289
Gantt, E. E. (2018). Books briefly noted: Review of A new narrative forpsychology, the phenomenology of learning and becoming, in the wake of trauma: Psychology and philosophy for the suffering other, and varieties of virtueethics. Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology, 38(3), 184-186. doi:10.1037/teo0000087
Goldstein, R. D., Lederman, R. I., Lichtenthal, W. G., Morris, S. E., Human, M., Elliott, A. J., Prigerson, H. G. (2018). The grief of mothers after the sudden unexpected death of their child
Halling, S. (2020). Phenomenology as fidelity to phenomena: Moving beyond the Van Manen, Smith, and Zahavi debate. The Humanistic Psychologist. https://doi-org.proxy1.ncu.edu/10.1037/hum0000195
Hinkson, G., Huggins, C., & Modeste-James, A. (2020). Mothers’ physical and mental health status after the homicide of their adult children in the small island state of trinidad and tobago. Traumatology, doi:10.1037/trm0000264
Hunt, Q. A., Young, T. A., & Hertlein, K. M. (2019). The process of long-term suicide bereavement: Responsibility, familial support, and meaning making. Contemporary Family Therapy: An International Journal, 41(4), 335-346. doi:10.1007/s10591-019-09499-5
Jordan, J. R., & McGann, V. (2017). Clinical work with suicide loss survivors: Implications of the U.S. postvention guidelines. Death Studies, 41(10), 659-672. doi:10.1080/07481187.2017.1335553
Kasahara-Kiritani, M., Ikeda, M., Yamamoto-Mitani, N., & Kamibeppu, K. (2017). Regaining my new life: Daily lives of suicide-bereaved individuals. Death Studies, 41(7), 447-454. doi:10.1080/07481187.2017.1297873
Kalu, M. E. (2019). Using Emphasis-Purposeful Sampling-Phenomenon of Interest-Context (EPPiC) Framework to Reflect on Two Qualitative Research Designs and Questions: A Reflective Process. The Qualitative Report, 24(10), 2524.
Keeshin, B. R., Gray, D., Zhang, C., Presson, A. P., & Coon, H. (2018). Youth suicide deaths: Investigation of clinical predictors in a statewide sample. Suicide & Life-Threatening Behavior, 48(5), 601-612. doi:10.1111/sltb.12386
Kochen, E. M., Jenken, F., Boelen, P. A., Deben, L. M. A., Fahner, J. C., van den Hoogen, A., . . . Kars, M. C. (2020). When a child dies: A systematic review of well-defined parent-focused bereavement interventions and their alignment with grief- and loss theories. BMC Palliative Care, 19(1) doi:10.1186/s12904-020-0529-z
Levitt, H. M., Bamberg, M., Creswell, J. W., Frost, D. M., Josselson, R., & Suárez-Orozco, C. (2018). Journal article reporting standards for qualitative primary, qualitative meta-analytic, and mixed methods research in psychology: The APA publications and communications board task force report. American Psychologist, 73(1), 26-46. doi:10.1037/amp0000151
Maher, L., & Neale, J. (2019). Adding quality to quantity in randomized controlled trials of addiction prevention and treatment: a new framework to facilitate the integration of qualitative research. Addiction (Abingdon, England), 114(12), 2257–2266 doi-org.proxy1.ncu.edu/10.1111/add.14777
McLaughlin, C., McGowan, I., Kernohan, G., & O’Neill, S. (2016). The unmet support needs of family members caring for a suicidal person. Journal of Mental Health, 25(3), 212-216. doi:10.3109/09638237.2015.1101421
Milman, E., Neimeyer, R. A., Fitzpatrick, M., MacKinnon, C. J., Muis, K. R., & Cohen, S. R. (2019). Prolonged grief and the disruption of meaning: Establishing a mediation model. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 66(6), 714-725. doi:10.1037/cou0000370; 10.1037/cou0000370.supp (Supplemental)
Morris, S., Fletcher, K., & Goldstein, R. (2019). The grief of parents after the death of a young child. Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings, 26(3), 321-338. doi:10.1007/s10880-018-9590-7
Neimeyer, R. A. (2019). Meaning reconstruction in bereavement: Development of a research program. Death Studies, 43(2), 79-91. doi:10.1080/07481187.2018.1456620
Neimeyer, R. A. (2016). Meaning reconstruction in the wake of loss: Evolution of a research program doi:10.1017/bec.2016.4
Peters, K., Cunningham, C., Murphy, G., & Jackson, D. (2016). ‘People look down on you when you tell them how he died’: Qualitative insights into stigma as experienced by suicide survivors. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing, (3), 251. doi:10.1111/inm.12210
Pitman, A., Khrisna Putri, A., De Souza, T., Stevenson, F., King, M., Osborn, D., & Morant, N. (2018). The impact of suicide bereavement on educational and occupational functioning: A qualitative study of 460 bereaved adults. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 15(4) doi:10.3390/ijerph15040643
Pritchard, T. R., & Buckle, J. L. (2018). Meaning-making after partner suicide: A narrative exploration using the meaning of loss codebook. Death Studies, 42(1), 35-44. doi:10.1080/07481187.2017.1334007
Raitio, K., Kaunonen, M., & Aho, A. L. (2015). Evaluating a bereavement follow‐up intervention for grieving mothers after the death of a child. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 29(3), 510-520. doi:10.1111/scs.12183
Reynolds, T., Boutwell, B., Shackelford, T. K., Weekes-Shackelford, V., Nedelec, J., Beaver, K., & Abed, M. G. (2020). Child mortality and parental grief: An evolutionary analysis. New Ideas in Psychology, 59 doi:10.1016/j.newideapsych.2020.100798
Ross, V., Kõlves, K., Kunde, L., & De Leo, D. (2018). Parents’ experiences of suicide-bereavement: A qualitative study at 6 and 12 months after loss. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 15(4) doi:10.3390/ijerph15040618
Rostila, M., Maki, N., & Martikainen, P. (2018). Does the death of a child influence parental use of psychotropic medication? A follow-up register study from finland. PLoS ONE, (5) doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0195500
Ruch, D. A., Sheftall, A. H., Schlagbaum, P., Rausch, J., Campo, J. V., & Bridge, J. A. (2019). Trends in suicide among youth aged 10 to 19 years in the united states, 1975 to 2016. JAMA Network Open, 2(5), e193886. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.3886
Shannon, E., & Wilkinson, B. D. (2020). The ambiguity of perinatal loss: A dual-process approach to grief counseling. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 42(2), 140-154. doi:10.17744/mehc.42.2.04
Shields, C., Russo, K., & Kavanagh, M. (2019). Angels of courage: The experiences of mothers who have been bereaved by suicide. Omega: Journal of Death & Dying, 80(2), 175-201. doi:10.1177/0030222817725180
Simon, J., Luetzow, A., & Conte, J. R. (2020). Thirty years of the convention on the rights of the child: Developments in child sexual abuse and exploitation. Child Abuse & Neglect, 110(30) doi:10.1016/j.chiabu.2020.104399
Smid, G. E. (2020). A framework of meaning attribution following loss. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 11(1), 1-11. doi:10.1080/20008198.2020.1776563
Tarnoki, C., & Puentes, K. (2019). Something for everyone: A review of qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches. The Qualitative Report, 24(12), 3120.
Verma, N., & Neimeyer, R. A. (2020). Grief and growth: An appreciative journey. AI Practitioner, 22(2), 5-10. doi:10.12781/978-1-907549-43-4-1
Wainwright, V., Cordingley, L., Chew-Graham, C., Kapur, N., Shaw, J., Smith, S., McDonnell, S. (2020). Experiences of support from primary care and perceived needs of parents bereaved by suicide: A qualitative study. British Journal of General Practice, 70(691), e102.
Westerlund, M., Sebastian Hökby, & Gergö Hadlaczky. (2020). Suicidal thoughts and behaviors among swedish suicide-bereaved women: Increased risk associated with the loss of a child, feelings of guilt and shame, and perceived avoidance from family members. Frontiers in Psychology, 11 doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2020.01113
Zahle, J. (2019). Data, epistemic values, and multiple methods in case study research. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science, 78, 32-39. doi:10.1016/j.shpsa.2018.11.005
Zahavi, D. (2019). Phenomenology: The Basics. Routledge.

Appendix A
XXX

Insert Appendix A content here…

Appendix B
XXX

Insert/type Appendix n content here…

Order Now

Calculate a fair price for your paper

Such a cheap price for your free time and healthy sleep

1650 words
-
-
Place an order within a couple of minutes.
Get guaranteed assistance and 100% confidentiality.
Total price: $78
WeCreativez WhatsApp Support
Our customer support team is here to answer your questions. Ask us anything!
👋 Hi, how can I help?